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National Innovation Systems in Perspective: The Performance of the Portuguese NIS Manuel Mira Godinho (ISEG/Technical University of Lisbon and CISEP) Paper presented to «The Network Society and the Knowledge Economy: Portugal in the Global Context»

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National Innovation Systems in Perspective:

The Performance of the Portuguese NIS

Manuel Mira Godinho

(ISEG/Technical University of Lisbon and CISEP)

Paper presented to

«The Network Society and the Knowledge Economy: Portugal in the Global Context»

Seminar promoted by His Excellence The President of the Portuguese Republic

Lisbon, 5-6 March 2005



1 national innovation systems the nis concept
1. National Innovation Systems (the NIS concept)

  • Diversity of actors

  • Links and communication

  • Density of interactions

  • Production and distribution of knowledge

  • Other resources (labour, finance…)

  • Learning dynamics

  • History and previous conditions

  • Institutions


2 the analytical framework
2. The Analytical Framework

  • 4 groups of factors

  • 8 dimensions

  • 29 variables

  • 69 countries


4 groups of factors and 8 dimensions
4 groups of factors and 8 dimensions

  • Preconditions

    1.1. market conditions

    1.2. institutional conditions

    2. System Inputs

    2.1 intangible and tangible investments

    2.2. basic and applied knowledge

    3. Structural organization

    3.1. economic structure

    3.2. external communication

    4. System outputs

    4.1. diffusion

    4.2. innovation




69 countries
69 Countries

  • Developed, emerging and developing economies

  • Countries with > 20 million inhabitants

  • Overall: 87.4% of the world population


3 framework deployment
3. Framework deployment

  • Aggregation procedure

  • Mapping and map analysis

  • NIS Ranking

  • Cluster analysis

  • NISs taxanomy


Aggregation procedure
Aggregation procedure

  • Between 2 and 6 indicators per dimension

  • Weight of each indicator: 1; 0,5

  • Standardisation of indicators

  • In each dimension  0 value ≈ sample mean





Cluster analysis
Cluster analysis

Object of the analysis

  • 69 countries X 8 NIS dimensions

    Results’ interpretation led to a three-level structure

  • 1st level  2 “Mega-clusters”

  • 2nd level  6 “Clusters”

  • 3rd level  15 “Sub-clusters”






Nis taxonomy
NIS taxonomy

Contingency factors

  • Innovation vs. diffusion

  • Country Size

  • Geography and natural endowments




Somewhere in between

4. The Portuguese NIS...

…somewhere in-between

  • Market

  • Institutions

  • Investment

  • Knowledge

  • Structure

  • Openness

  • Diffusion

  • Innovatio



Evolution of the portuguese nis 1996 2000 2004
Evolution of the Portuguese NIS 1996-2000-2004

  • Market

  • Institutions

  • Investment

  • Knowledge

  • Structure

  • Openness

  • Diffusion

  • Innovatio




  • Concluding Remarks dimension (#7)

    • NIS Dualism

    • Stronger aspects

  • (+) Investment

  • (+) Diffusion

  • (+) Knowledge


Concluding Remarks dimension (#7)

Weaker aspects

(-) Structure

(-) Openness

(-) Institutions


Concluding Remarks dimension (#7)

“Frontier” sub-cluster

Further catching up? Or falling behind? Need of adaptation:

 Economic structure

 FDI, links abroad

 Innovation (IPR…)


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