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The United States and World War II and . 1939-1945. Objective. To understand the nature of the Second World War To understand the war aims of the Axis and Allied powers To understand how end of the Second World War and its Consequences To understand the Holocaust. Recap of Causes.

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The united states and world war ii and l.jpg

The United States and World War II and

1939-1945


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Objective

  • To understand the nature of the Second World War

  • To understand the war aims of the Axis and Allied powers

  • To understand how end of the Second World War and its Consequences

  • To understand the Holocaust


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Recap of Causes

  • Hitler and the Treaty of Versailles

  • Response of the Allies and League of Nations


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Lead-up to War

  • Hitler remilitarizes Rhineland in 1935

  • Hitler builds up army and air force

  • Italy invades Ethiopia in 1935; Allies do nothing

  • Rome-Berlin Axis formed in 1936

  • Germany annexes Austria in 1938

  • Germany dismembers Czechoslovakia in 1938


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Spanish Civil War

  • Prelude to Second World War

    • Background

    • Fascists vs. Socialists

  • Response of the Allies


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War Leaders

  • The Allies

    • The United States

    • Great Britain

    • The Soviet Union


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War Leaders

  • The Axis

    • Germany

    • Italy

    • Japan


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The War in Europe

  • Germany invades Poland on September 1, 1939

  • Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact


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The War in Europe

  • Germany invades Western Europe in 1940

    • “Blitzkrieg”

    • Conquests


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The War in Europe

  • Hitler targets Britain

    • Britain and Empire alone

    • Winston Churchill (1874-1965)


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The War in Europe

  • The Battle of Britain (1940)

    • German strategy: Operation Sea Lion

      • Plan

      • Execution

      • Outcome


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The War in Europe

  • Italy and the war

    • Mussolini’s ambitions

    • Hitler’s alliance with Italy


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The War in Europe

  • Hitler turns to the Soviet Union

    • Master Plan

    • Stalin warned


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The War in Europe

  • Hitler invades Soviet Union June 22, 1941

    • Operation Barbarosa

    • Soviet Union unprepared

    • German army sweeps through western Russia


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The War in the Pacific

  • Japan becomes a major power in Asia in early 20th century

  • Japan militarizes in the 1930s


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The War in the Pacific

  • Japan invades Manchuria in 1931

  • Japan vs. United States


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The War in the Pacific

  • United States neutral at the beginning of the war

    • Public Opinion

    • Congress passed strict neutrality laws in 1938

    • Lend-Lease


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The War in the Pacific

  • Japanese aggression threatened American interests in the Pacific

  • US pressures Japan to withdraw from Indochina


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The War in the Pacific

  • Japanese navy attacks Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941

    • Plan

    • US declares war on Japan December 8, 1941


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The War in the Pacific

  • Japan takes over Southeast Asia and the Pacific

    • Conquests

    • State of US Navy

    • Pacific Theater


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The Home Front

  • Total War

    • Recap

    • Rationing

    • Role of Propaganda




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United States Economy During World War II


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Women’s Employment During World War II


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Growth of Federal GovernmentDuring World War II


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Major Battles

  • Battle of El-Alamein (1942)

  • Battle of Midway (1942)

  • Battle of Stalingrad (1942)


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The Holocaust

  • The “Final Solution”

  • Precedents


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The Holocaust

  • Construction of concentration camps throughout Europe

    • Role of Collaborators

    • Purpose of Concentration Camps


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The Holocaust

  • Six million Jews died in the Holocaust

    • 1 million died in Auschwitz alone

  • Other populations also suffered

    • Gypsies, Poles, Russians, Romanians, etc.

  • Allies informed about the Holocaust as early as 1942 but did nothing


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The End of the War

  • D-Day June 6, 1944

    • Allies begin liberation of Western Europe

    • Soviets invade Germany from the East

    • Germany surrenders on May 8, 1945


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The End of the War

  • Surrender of Germany allows Allies to focus on Japan

  • Pacific campaign


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Allied War Aims

  • Atlantic Charter

  • Unconditional Surrender


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The End of the War

  • Secret Allied plan to end war with Japan

    • Atom bomb (“Manhattan Project”)

    • US drops first atom bomb on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945


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The End of the War

  • The Yalta Conference (February 1945)

    • Purpose

    • Tensions


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The End of the War

  • Potsdam Conference (July 1945)

    • Changes in Allied leadership

    • Borders redrawn


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The End of the War

  • Division of Germany

  • Occupation of Japan

  • World War II officially ends on September 2, 1945



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