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Investigation and Remediation of a Small Arms Firing Range

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Investigation and Remediation of a Small Arms Firing Range. JP Messier U.S. Coast Guard Civil Engineering Unit - Cleveland. Presentation Overview USCG Environmental Organization Regulatory Framework USCG Firing Ranges Site Characterization Remediation O&M and Upgrades Compliance

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Investigation and Remediation

of a

Small Arms Firing Range

JP Messier

U.S. Coast Guard

Civil Engineering Unit - Cleveland

slide2
Presentation Overview
  • USCG Environmental Organization
  • Regulatory Framework
  • USCG Firing Ranges
  • Site Characterization
  • Remediation
  • O&M and Upgrades
  • Compliance
  • Pollution Prevention
  • References
slide3
U.S. Coast Guard Environmental Organization
  • Headquarters (G-SEC-3)
    • Policy, Guidance, and Funding
      • Washington, D.C.
  • Maintenance and Logistics Commands (MLC)
    • Program Management
      • Atlantic – Norfolk, Virginia
      • Pacific – Alameda, California
slide4
Facilities Design and Construction Center (FD&CC)
    • Major Construction and Design Services
      • Atlantic – Norfolk, Virginia
      • Pacific – Seattle, Washington
  • Civil Engineering Units (CEU)
    • Minor Construction, Design, Environmental, and Real Property Services
      • Cleveland
      • Honolulu
      • Juneau
      • Oakland
      • Miami
      • Providence
slide6
Regulatory Framework
  • CERCLA
    • EPCRA Section 313, TRI Form R
    • Release Notification and Corrective Actions
  • RCRA
    • Spent Ammunition, Bullet Fragments
      • Recycling/Reclamation – 40 CFR 261
    • Reuse of Soils On Site
      • Military Munitions Rule – 40 CFR 266
  • Clean Water Act – NPDES (State Regulations)
  • Other State Programs for Corrective Action
slide7
USCG Small Arms Firing Ranges (SAFR)
  • Active
    • Seattle, Ketchikan, Kodiak, Honolulu, Galveston, New Orleans, Portsmouth, Cape Cod, Sandy Hook, Petaluma, Cape May, Academy, and Yorktown
  • Closed/Inactive
    • Ketchikan, Cape May, and Galveston
slide8
Site Characterization
  • Investigation
    • Site Evaluation
      • Fate Transport of Considerations
        • Airborne Particulates
        • Storm Water Runoff and Erosion
        • Dissolved Lead in Groundwater/Surface Water
      • Range History and Layout
        • Ammunition Usage
        • Reclamation and Recycling
        • Firing Positions and Bullet Deposition
        • Future Land/Range Use
slide11
Investigation - continued
    • Sampling Plan
      • Locations and Depths
        • Vertical and Horizontal Extents
        • Hot Spots and Background
      • Contaminants of Concerns
        • Primarily Lead
      • Sampling Methodology
        • Field Screening Using XRF and/or Electron Tube Analyzers
          • USEPA Method 6200
slide15
Sampling Plan - continued
    • Analytical Method (SW-846)
    • Process Sample with a Sieve
    • Soil, Groundwater, and Surface Water
      • Total and Recoverable/Dissolved Metals
        • Amount of Lead Present in the Environment
        • Method 6010B – Analysis AA or ICP
        • Filtered and Unfiltered for Liquid Samples
      • pH
        • Buffering Capacity
        • Method 9045
slide16
Sampling Plan - continued
      • SEM:AVS
        • Acid Volatile Sulfide and Simultaneously Extracted Metals
        • Bioavailability and Binding Assessment
        • Ratio <1 Potential for Metals to Bind
        • Ratio >1 Insufficient Sulfides for Binding
      • Toxicity Testing
        • Sediment – In Situ or Ex Situ
        • Expensive, Last Measure, Higher Certainty of Risks from Impacts
slide17
Sampling Plan - continued
    • Total Organic Carbon
      • Solubility/Mobility Indicator
      • Method 9060
    • Grain Size Distribution
      • Soil Classification Data
      • ASTM D-422
    • Investigative Derived Wastes (IDW)
      • Waste Stream Classification
      • Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP) – Method 3010/6010
slide18
Ecological Risk Assessment
    • Tier I
      • Generic
      • Bulk Soil Sample Results
      • Comparison Against Published Standards
    • Tier II
      • Site Specific
      • Water Analytical and Additional Soils Data
      • Ecological Characterization
      • Exposure Pathway Identification
      • Estimate of Potential Risks
slide19
Remedial Alternatives Evaluation
    • Evaluation Factors
      • Future Land Use
        • Continued Range Operation
        • Industrial
        • Residential
      • Cleanup Goal Establishment
      • Budget and Timeframe
slide20
Remedial Alternatives Evaluation - continued
    • Technology Selection
      • Disposal, Recycling , and Reuse
      • Physical Separation
      • Stabilization/Solidification
      • Soil Washing
      • Chemical Extraction
      • Phytoremediation/Phytoextraction
    • Lower Cleanup Goals = Higher Costs
slide21
Remediation
  • Disposal
    • Off-Range Disposal
      • Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP) Testing Warranted to Define Waste Stream Classification
        • Hazardous or Non-Hazardous?
      • Haz Soil Can be Treated to Become Non-Haz
        • Physical Separation
        • Stabilization/Solidification
        • Soil Washing
        • Chemical Extraction
slide22
Soil Reuse
    • No Testing Required: On-Site Use
      • Physical Separation of Bullet Fragments
      • Berm Reconstruction
      • Other Uses within Range Boundary
        • Side/Wing Walls
    • Off-Site Use
      • Testing Required, Treatment Good Probability
        • Render and Prove Non-Haz
        • Show Totals Meet State Criterias
      • Fill Materials
slide23
Soil Recycling
    • Chemically Treat/Utilize Soils in a Product
      • Rendered Inseparable by Physical Means
      • Meets Universal Treatment Standards
    • Road Base Emulsions/Materials
slide24
Physical Separation
    • Use for On-Site Management or Off-Site Disposal
      • Dry Screening/Sifting
      • Bullet Fragment Removal/Recycling
      • Lower Limit of ¼ inch
slide25
Stabilization/Solidification
    • Stabilization
      • Phosphates, Sulfates, Hydroxides, and Carbonates
    • Solidification
      • Portland Cement, Cement Kiln Dust
    • Use for On-Site Management
      • Lower/Control Solubility, Leaching to Ground/Surface Water, and Bioavailability/Risk
    • Use for Off-Site Disposal
      • Render Non-Hazardous to Lower Disposal Costs and Long Term Risk
slide27
Stabilization/Solidification - continued
    • Pros:
      • Off-Site Disposal of Non-Haz Soils Reduces Tipping Fees
      • Risk Remains with Land Owner and Not Transferred to a Landfill for Potential Future Liabilities if Soils Remain On-Site
slide28
Stabilization/Solidification - continued
    • Cons:
      • If Volume is Small, Costs to Perform Option do not Outweigh Savings from Non-Haz Landfill
      • No Reduction in Total Metal Concentrations
      • Material is Heavily Bulked
      • Land Use Controls Warranted if On-Site
      • RCRA Permit May be Needed by State
slide29
Soil Washing
    • Mineral Processing Technique
      • Physical Sizing
      • Magnetic Separation
      • Soil Classification
      • Gravity Separation
    • Bench-Scale Study Required to Evaluate Process
slide30
Soil Washing - continued
    • Use for On-Site Management
      • Reduce/Eliminate Leaching to GW/SW
      • Lower Risk to Human Health and the Environment
    • Use for Off-Site Disposal
      • Render Non-Hazardous to Lower Disposal Costs and Long Term Risk
slide31
Soil Washing - continued
    • Pros:
      • Off-Site Disposal of Non-Haz Soils Reduces Tipping Fees
      • Risk Remains with Land Owner and Not Transferred to a Landfill for Potential Future Liabilities if Soils Remain On Site
slide32
Soil Washing - continued
    • Cons:
      • If Volume is Small, Costs to Perform Option do not Outweigh Savings at Non-Haz Landfill
      • Residuals May Warrant Land Use Controls Warranted if On-Site
      • RCRA Permit May be Required by State
slide33

Humates

Washes Oversized

Coarse Soil

Boulders

Separates by Size

Soil Fines

Particulate Contaminants

Separates by Density

slide34
Chemical Extraction
    • Bench Scale Testing to Provide Effective System
      • pH, Buffering Capacity, Total Organic Carbon, Iron and Manganese Levels, Soil Type
    • Residuals of Metals and Leaching Solvent May Remain Bound in the Soils, Restricting Site Usage
    • Residual Acids Require Neutralization
    • Residual Solvents May Remain Toxic in Treated Soils
slide35
Phytoremediation/Phytoextraction
    • Limited Uptake Potential
    • Specific Plants and Conditions Warranted
    • Constructed Wetlands
      • Indian Mustard Plant
      • Organic Base – Topsoil, Humates, Sandy Loam
      • Soil Ph Levels, Temperature
      • Lead Needed in a More Soluble Form for Uptake
        • Amendment with Chelates
slide36
O&M and Upgrades
    • Best Management Practices
      • Monitoring and Adjusting Soil pH
        • Lime/Phosphate Addition
      • Control Runoff
        • Ground/Surface Cover
          • Grasses, Mulches, and Compost
        • Filter Beds
        • Containment Traps and Detention Ponds
        • Dams and Dikes
        • Ground Contouring
slide37
O&M and Upgrades – continued
    • Bullet Trap Systems
      • Decelerator
      • Granular Rubber
      • Block Rubber
      • SACON – Shock Absorbing Concrete
      • Earthen Berm
slide38
Compliance
    • EPCRA TRI Form-R Reporting
      • Release and/or Transfer of Toxic Chemicals
      • Lead – 100 pounds per year
      • Annual Submission; On/Before July 1st
        • EPA and State
      • EPA TRI-ME Software
slide39
Pollution Prevention
    • Lead-Free (Green) Ammunition
      • Frangible
        • Polymers, Nylon
        • Disintegrates upon Contact
        • Shorter Effective Range
      • Non Toxic
        • Copper Jackets over Zinc/Tin
        • Potential for Ricochet
slide40
References
    • Interstate Technology Regulatory Council (ITRC), Small Arms Firing Ranges; http://www.itrcweb.org
    • National Association of Shooting Ranges; http://www.rangeinfo.org
    • Lead Prevention and Migration from a SAFR;

http://aec.army.mil/usaec/technology/leadmigration.pdf

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