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Prehabilitation & Preseason Conditioning. Chapter 7. Prehabilitation versus Rehabilitation. Rehabilitation: process of restoring function through programmed exercise to enable return to competition

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Prehabilitation versus rehabilitation
Prehabilitation versus Rehabilitation

  • Rehabilitation: process of restoring function through programmed exercise to enable return to competition

  • Prehabilitation: trying to prevent injuries before thy occur through a preventative management program


Preseason conditioning
Preseason Conditioning

  • Program that allows the body to gradually adapt to the demands to be placed on it

  • Beginning 6-8 weeks prior to sports participation

  • Overall conditioning plus concentrate on sport-specific weaknesses

  • Doing too much, too soon, at high intensity not allow body to adapt effectivelyincreases risk of injury


Strength training
Strength Training

  • Highly adaptive process whereby the body changes in response to increased training loads

  • Adaptation: systematic application of exercise stress sufficient to stimulate muscle fatigues, but not so severe that breakdown and injury occur


Strength training1
Strength Training

  • Skeletal muscle highly adaptable

  • Hypertrophy: increase in size of muscle tissue

  • Atrophy: weakness and wasting away of muscle tissue

  • Progressive Resistance Exercise: type of training in which muscles are worked until they reach their capacity

    • Once athlete is able to maintain that capacity, the workload on the muscle is increased to further build strength and endurance

    • Factors that determine rate and type of strength gains include:

      • Overload

      • Specificity

      • Reversibility

      • Individual differences


Overload
Overload

  • Progressive overwork of muscles at a controlled, increased rate, to achieve consistent gains in strength

  • Muscles increase in strength and size when forced to contract at tensions close to max

  • Muscular tension must be attained at an adequate intensity and duration for optimal development of strength

    • 4-8 repetitions in multiple sets (3+)

    • Proper rest intervals between sets


Specificity
Specificity

  • Ability of particular muscle groups to respond to targeted training to those muscle

  • Increased strength gained in that muscle group only

  • When muscles contract, they recruit different types of motor units to carry out contraction

    • Slow-twitch fibers

    • Fast-twitch fibers


Motor unit
Motor Unit

Slow-twitch Fibers

Fast-twitch Fibers

Type 2

Easily fatigued

Generate short bursts of strength or speed

Fire rapidly

Use anaerobic metabolism to create fuel

Sprinting or weight lifting

  • Type 1

  • Resistant to fatigue

  • Fire more slowly

  • More efficient at using O2 to generate more fuel (ATP)

  • Used for continuous, extended muscle contractions over a long time

  • Marathons or bicycle for hours



  • Amount of training that occurs in muscle fiber determined by extent to which it is recruited

    • High-repetition, low-intensity exercise slow-twitch fibers

      • Distance running

    • Low-repetition, high-intensity exercise fast-twitch fibers

      • Weight training

  • Training program should be structured to produce desired training effects


Reversibility
Reversibility extent to which it is recruited

  • Process of muscle atrophy due to disuse, immobilization, or starvation

  • Leads to decrease strength and muscle mass

  • Slow-twitch fibers atrophy faster

  • Important to rehab with strength and endurance after period of immobilization


Individual differences
Individual Differences extent to which it is recruited

  • People vary at rate at which they gain strength

  • Endurance athletes = more slow-twitch fibers

  • Strength athletes = more fast-twitch fibers

  • Fast twitch fibers tend to gain strength faster

  • Intense, progressive resistance training mainly enlarges fast-twitch fibers

    people with more fast-twitch fibers will tend to gain strength faster, be stronger, and have greater potential for strength gains


Strength training exercises

STRENGTH TRAINING EXERCISES extent to which it is recruited


Isometric exercises
Isometric Exercises extent to which it is recruited

  • Muscles contract but there is no motion in the affected joints

  • Muscle fibers maintain a constant length throughout the entire contraction

  • Performed against an immovable surface or object


Benefits of using isometric exercises
Benefits of Using extent to which it is recruitedIsometric Exercises

  • Exact area of muscle weakness can be isolated

  • Strengthening can be administered at proper joint angle

  • Provide relatively quick and convenient method for overloading and strengthening muscles

  • No special equipment needed & little chance of injury

  • Contraindication: those with circulation problems and high blood pressure


Isotonic dynamic exercise
Isotonic (Dynamic) Exercise extent to which it is recruited

  • Activity that causes the muscle to contract and shorten (movement of joint during ctx)

  • Weight training with dumbbells/barbells

    • As weight lifted through ROM, muscle shortens and lengthens

  • Calisthenics (chin-ups, push-ups, sit-ups)

    • Use body weight as resistance force

  • Improves blood circulation, strength, and endurance


Manual resistance training
Manual Resistance Training extent to which it is recruited

  • Form of dynamic exercise that is accomplished with training partner

  • Partner assists by adding resistance to lift as lifter works the muscles through FROM

  • Partner adds enough resistance to allow lifter to fatigue muscles, but that lift can be completed

  • Advantages

    • Requires minimal equipment

    • Spotter can help control technique

    • Workouts can be completed in less than 30min

    • Training can be done anywhere

  • Disadvantages

    • Requires extra person

    • Both must be trained to do exercises properly


Isokinetic exercise
Isokinetic extent to which it is recruited Exercise

  • Uses machines to control speed of contraction within ROM

  • Attempts to combine best features of both isometric and weight training

  • Provides muscular overload at constant, preset speed while muscle mobilizes its force through FROM

  • Cybex, Biodex


Circuit training
Circuit Training extent to which it is recruited

  • Uses 6-10 strength exercise that are completed as a circuit, one exercise after another

  • Each exercise performed for specified number of reps or time period before moving to next

  • Each station separated by brief, timed rest

  • Total number of circuits performed my vary depending on athlete’s training level


Stretching flexibility
Stretching & Flexibility extent to which it is recruited

  • Stretching: moving the joints beyond the normal ROM

    • Useful for injury prevention & treatment

    • Athlete increases the length of the muscle

      leads to increase ROM  limbs/joints can move further before injury occurs

  • Flexibility: ability of a joint to move freely through it’s FROM


Warm up
Warm-Up extent to which it is recruited

  • Essential component of stretching

  • Increases heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate

    Increase delivery of oxygen and nutrients to muscles

     Allows muscles to prepare for strenuous activity

  • Warm-up should be non-strenuous but allow athlete to perspire


Warm up facts
Warm-up FACTS extent to which it is recruited

  • Active person tends to e more flexible than inactive

  • Females tend to be more flexible than males

  • Older people tend to be less flexible than younger

  • Flexibility is as important as muscular strength and endurance

  • To achieve flexibility in a joint, surrounding muscles must be stretched


Static stretching
Static Stretching extent to which it is recruited

  • Gradual stretching of a muscle through entire ROM

  • Slowly until a pulling sensation occurs

  • Hold position for 20-30 seconds

  • Should not be painful


Ballistic stretching
Ballistic Stretching extent to which it is recruited

  • Rhythmical, bouncing action

  • Stretches muscle a little further each time

  • Performed 10-15 times

  • Research shows increase incidence of injury; bouncing action activates stretch reflex resulting in small muscle tears and soreness


Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation
Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation extent to which it is recruited

  • Involves combination of contraction and relaxation of muscles

  • Proprioceptive: stimuli originating in muscles, tendons, and other internal tissue

  • Neuromuscular: muscles and nerves

  • Facilitation: hastening or enhancement of any natural process

  • Requires initial isometric ctxvs maximum resistance at end of ROM


Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation1
Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation extent to which it is recruited

  • Requires initial isometric ctx versus maximum resistance at end of ROM

  • Position typically held for 6 seconds followed by relaxation and a passive stretch

  • Repeated several times

  • Designed to be completed by qualified assistant


Name that strength training exercise category

Name that Strength Training Exercise Category extent to which it is recruited


Isokinetic exercise1
Isokinetic extent to which it is recruited Exercise


Manual resistance training1
Manual Resistance Training extent to which it is recruited


Isometric exercise
Isometric Exercise extent to which it is recruited


Static stretching1
Static Stretching extent to which it is recruited


Circuit training1
Circuit Training extent to which it is recruited


Manual resistance training2
Manual Resistance Training extent to which it is recruited


Isotonic exercise
Isotonic Exercise extent to which it is recruited


Isometric exercise1
Isometric Exercise extent to which it is recruited


Great job moving on

GREAT JOB!! extent to which it is recruitedMoving on…


Cardio respiratory conditioning
Cardio-Respiratory Conditioning extent to which it is recruited

  • aerobic or endurance training

  • Activities that put an increased demand on the lungs, heart, and other body systems

  • Can improve performance in all types of sports and activities

  • Uses large muscle groups for activities

  • Goal is to train heart and other muscles to use oxygen more efficiently perform exercise for longer periods of timeimprove overall fitness level


Muscular Endurance extent to which it is recruited

  • Ability of muscles to sustain high-intensity, aerobic exercise

  • i.e. weight lifter who has trained to complete 20 bench presses at 150lb in 60 seconds

    Cardiorespiratory Endurance

  • Relates to whole body’s ability to sustain prolonged, rhythmical exercise

  • i.e. cross-country runner completing a five-mile run


Physiological effects
Physiological Effects extent to which it is recruited

  • Heart increases in size increasing pumping volume

  • Resting heart rate decreases

  • Contributes to decrease in blood pressure

  • Increase in amount of air exchange in lungs provide more efficient oxygen transfer to blood

  • Increase resting metabolism

  • Athlete works, conditions, and competes at higher level


Benefits of cardiovascular conditioning
Benefits of Cardiovascular Conditioning extent to which it is recruited

  • Reduced fatigue

  • Improved self-confidence

  • Improved muscle strength and tone

  • Increased endurance

  • Reduced stress levels

  • Reduced body fat

  • Improved overall physical and mental health


The end
THE END extent to which it is recruited


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