Overview of CEA R&D Programme
1 / 23

Overview of CEA R&D Programme For Future Nuclear Systems G. Cognet - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Overview of CEA R&D Programme For Future Nuclear Systems G. Cognet. Considerations on future systems & closed fuel cycle. Future systems should materialize the vision of nuclear energy best suited to contribute, with other energy sources, to secure a sustainable energy development in Europe

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Overview of CEA R&D Programme For Future Nuclear Systems G. Cognet' - salali

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

Overview of CEA R&D Programme


Future Nuclear Systems

G. Cognet

Visit to Romania

Considerations on future systems & closed fuel cycle

Future systems should materialize the vision of nuclear energy best suited to contribute, with other energy sources, to secure a sustainable energy development in Europe

Sustainability means here:

  • best use (saving) of natural uranium resources

  • minimization of long-lived waste production

  • minimization of radioactive release

  • guarantee of safety

  • resistance to proliferation

Visit to Romania

Evolution of the Spent Fuel Radiotoxic Content

Spent UOX fuel: direct disposal of the irradiated fuel

Standard vitrified waste: glasses with MA and FP from the UOX spent fuel processing (as produced today at La Hague facility)

Vitrified waste without MA: standard vitrified waste (see upper) but without any M.A. (only FP from the UOX spent fuel processing)

One Pu recycling: All TRU after single Pu recycling in PWR

Multiple Pu recycling in PWR: M.A. and F.P. from the UOX and MOX spent fuel processing in case of a scenario with multiple Pu recycling in PWR

Multiple Pu recycling in FR: M.A. and F.P. from the FR spent fuel processing in case of a scenario with multiple Pu recycling in FR

Global recycling (Pu+M.A.) in Gen IV FR: F.P. from the FR spent fuel processing in case of a scenario with multiple Pu and M.A. recycling in FR

Visit to Romania

R&D on Nuclear Waste Management

Partitioning and Transmutation

Partitioning technological demonstration

Transmutation & evaluation report in 2005

  • Atalante laboratory shielded process line CBP

    • 15 kg of spent fuel

    • Np separated

  • Phenix FBR

  • Dedicated irradiation experiments are in progress until 2009

P&T offer the opportunity to reduce considerably the long-lived inventory in radioactive waste

Visit to Romania

Spent fuel management closing the fuel cycle


Natural Uranium







Uranium recyclable

Recycling :

MOX Fuel






Spent Fuel



& Services

Front-End Sector

Reactors & Services Sector

Back-End Sector

Spent Fuel Management : Closing the fuel cycle

A 2 to 6% cost increase in the kWh price of reprocessing and recycling against the once-through option (based on real costs and on a long lasting industrial experience in France)

… to be balanced with clear benefits of recycling :

  • reduction of the volume of final waste

  • more effective use of natural resources (up to 25% reduction of natural uranium consumption)

  • better route to more advanced and efficient nuclear systems (advanced partitioning, transmutation, breeding…)

Closed cycle: A more sustainable policy satisfying the present needs without impairing the capacities of the next generations

Visit to Romania

What nuclear reactors for future
What nuclear reactors for future ?

If the world nuclear park is based on “current” technology with an installed capacity which will remain stable until 2020 and then could grow linearly until 2050, the uranium resources consumed and earmarked in 2050 would be :

The resources of U (15 million tons) will have been earmarked once the installed capacity reaches 1300 GWe

  • Breeding, or at least iso-generation, reactors will therefore be needed before this time.

Technological breakthroughs are needed

Visit to Romania

Gen iv initiative 6 innovative concepts with technological breakthroughs

Closed Fuel


Closed Fuel Cycle

Lead Fast Reactor

Gas Fast Reactor

Molten Salt Reactor

Supercritical Water Reactor


Closed Fuel Cycle

Sodium Fast reactor

Very High Temperature Reactor

GEN-IV Initiative: 6 Innovative concepts with technological breakthroughs

Closed Fuel Cycle

Once Through

Visit to Romania

Most Promising Future Systems for CEA

Sodium technology is the reference technology :

  • Innovations are needed

  • Possibility to build a prototype (300/600 MWe) by 2020

    An alternative technology is needed :

  • Viability and performances to be assessed in 2010, to decide for an experimental reactor (50/100 MWth)

    VHTR technology development in link with process heat needs (synthetic oil, hydrogen…)

Visit to Romania

R d strategy of france for future nuclear energy systems
R&D Strategy of France for Future Nuclear Energy Systems

1 – Development of Fast Reactors with closed fuel cycles, along 2 tracks:

  • Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR)

  • Gas Fast Reactor (GFR)

  • New processes for spent fuel treatment and recycling

  • Industrial deployment around 2040

    2 –Hydrogen production and high temperature process heat supply to the industry

  • Very / High Temperature Reactor (V/HTR)

  • High Temperature Electrolysis and Water splitting processes

    3 – Innovations for LWRs (Fuel, Systems…)

Approved by the French Government in March 2005

Visit to Romania

A prototype reactor in 2020
A Prototype Reactor in 2020

President Chirac statement (Jan 06) :

«  A number of countries are working on future generation reactors, to become operational in 2030-2040, which will produce less waste and will make a better use of fissile materials.

I have decided to launch, starting today, the design work by CEA of a prototype of the 4th generation reactor, which will be commissioned in 2020.

We will naturally welcome industrial or international partners who would like to get involved. »

Visit to Romania

France has a large experience in sfrs





France has a large experience in SFRs

Visit to Romania

R d on sodium cooled reactors
R&D on Sodium Cooled Reactors

  • Goals : investment cost, safety, operating conditions

    • System simplification : architecture, conversion system - CO2sc, direct cycle or combined (nitrogen-helium)

    • In-service inspection and repair,

    • Advanced materials for structures and fuel,

    • Core safety and notably issues associated with criticality control (void-effect, re-criticality)

  • - Definition of 2 concepts for a sodium cooled reactor :

    • - to illustrate proposed innovations within a global design,

    • - to evaluate resulting economics and associated risks,

    • - to best target the most promising R&D paths,

Visit to Romania

Innovative sfr sketches
Innovative SFR Sketches

Simple bouchon tournant

Large pool type

1500 MWe optimized size

Échangeur intermédiaire à faible dimension radiale

Échangeur puissance résiduelle



Modular concept with gas conversion system


Circuit primaire à boucle

Visit to Romania

R d on gfr
R&D on GFR

Second FNR path with inert and transparent coolant

  • Technological Challenges :

    • nuclear fuel

    • residual power management

    • materials

  • High power GFR feasibility

  • Experimental Reactor design studies

    • global design, consistent with GFR

    • safety assessment report (SAR)

Visit to Romania

Etdr and 2400 mwth gfr sketches
ETDR and 2400 MWth GFR Sketches

Experimental Reactor

50 MWth


2400 MWth

Visit to Romania

Nuclear fuel cycle goals














U Pu


U Pu

Nuclear Fuel Cycle Goals

  • Natural resources conservation

  • Waste minimisation

  • Proliferation resistance

  • All paths should be kept available, they could be used in a sequence.

  • U & Pu recycling



    Homogeneous recycling (GenIV)

    Visit to Romania

    A european strategy for nuclear energy

    Europe « … the need to keep nuclear power at the heart of Europe’s energy mix  » European Parliament resolution, November 2001


    A European strategy for nuclear energy ?

    Some recent events could stimulate a change in the perception of the role of nuclear energy in Europe :

    • The Green Paper

    • The effective participation of EURATOM in the GEN-IV International Forum since September 2003

    • The “International Partnership for the Hydrogen Economy” signed in Washington in November 2003

    • The European awareness of energy dependency (oil or gas)

    Visit to Romania

    What stakes in the involvement of europe in future nuclear energy systems
    What stakes in the involvement of Europe in future nuclear energy systems ?

    • Be ready for the Gen II/III reactors fleet renewal stage by 2040

      • in 2015-2020 be able to choose a fast neutron system technology with an optimized management of actinides

    • Join the international effort to meet future hydrogen needs

      • in 2015-20 be able to choose a nuclear production process

    • Preserve our role of European leader on the international scene

      • Enhance past European experience into innovative technologies (sodium fast reactors, fuel cycle processes…)

      • Develop new technologies to preserve our leadership

    Share the same view and a common strategy

    Visit to Romania

    A european r d parallel to gen iv

    European energy systems ?


    Generation IV




    Framework Programme


    Framework Programme

    International Forum


    Michelangelo Network




    Very High Temperature





    (Integrated project)






    Gas Fast Reactor


    Gas Cooled Fast

    GCFR: Gas Cooled Fast







    Supercritical Water

    High Performance LWR









    Molten Salt Reactor


    Molten Salt Technology

    Molten Salt Reactor

    (SSA under preparation)




    Sodium Fast Reactor

    (SSA under preparation)


    Sodium Fast Reactor




    Lead Fast reactor




    (I3 for lead technologies)

    A European R & D parallel to Gen-IV

    Possibilities of direct contributions of Euratom countries to Forum Generation IV, but needs of a coordination

    Visit to Romania

    LWR energy systems ?

    (current & Gen-3)

    Competitiveness and Safety Optimization


    Process Heat, Electricity & H2

    Materials & Fuel Development

    Reactor Design & Safety

    Training and R&D Infrastructures

    Fuel Cycle and Waste Processes

    System Integration

    (Economy, non proliferation …)

    Fast Neutron Systems & Closed Fuel Cycle

    Critical Reactors ADS

    Geological Disposal

    Technologies, design, safety assessment

    Sustainable Nuclear Fission Technology Platform (SNF-TP)

    Launching in 2007

    Visit to Romania

    GoP energy systems ?

    The Strategic Planning Route



    Report of the Group of Personalities



    The Implementation Route

    The Strategic Research Agenda

    - Revision every 2 years -




    Public (EU, National, Euro-control, etc.)


    Private (Industry)






    Establishing SNF-TP: Typical Road Map

    SNF-TP starting

    Visit to Romania

    Structural materials for nuclear fission and fusion
    Structural materials for nuclear fission and fusion energy systems ?

    Research and technology development in material science is a key stake for a sustainable development of fission and fusion nuclear energy :

    • SFR (Sodium Fast Reactor) economical competitiveness has a direct link with the fuel cladding material and the circuits material;

    • Viability and performance of GFR (Gas Fast Reactor) is relying on the development of a refractory fuel.

    • Viability and performances of a fusion reactor have a direct link with blanket and divertor materials

      A common issue : high temperature & high fast neutron flux

    Visit to Romania

    Reactor energy systems ?


    Access to

    storage pools

    & hot cells

    JHR MTR project

    20 simultaneous experiments coupled with 4 cells, bunkers, fission product on line laboratory, …

    JHR,a 100MW testing reactor

    In core:

    High fast neutron flux

    (up to 1015 n/cm²/s>0,1 MeV)

    Material ageing

    (up to 16 dpa/y)

    Gen IV fuels (GFR)

    In reflector:

    High thermal neutron flux

    (up to 5.5 1014 n/cm²/s)

    Fuel studies

    (up to 600 W/cm

    with a 1% 235U

    PWR rod)

    Displacement systems

    To adjust the fissile power

    JHR characteristics

    51,12m x 46,75m + Φ36,6 m

    Advanced metallic alloys and Ceramic Matrix Composites raise challenging breakthroughs in material science that require a high performance experimental irradiation infrastructure, Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR).

    Visit to Romania