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Overview of CEA R&D Programme For Future Nuclear Systems G. Cognet. Considerations on future systems & closed fuel cycle. Future systems should materialize the vision of nuclear energy best suited to contribute, with other energy sources, to secure a sustainable energy development in Europe

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Overview of CEA R&D Programme

For

Future Nuclear Systems

G. Cognet

Visit to Romania


Considerations on future systems & closed fuel cycle

Future systems should materialize the vision of nuclear energy best suited to contribute, with other energy sources, to secure a sustainable energy development in Europe

Sustainability means here:

  • best use (saving) of natural uranium resources

  • minimization of long-lived waste production

  • minimization of radioactive release

  • guarantee of safety

  • resistance to proliferation

Visit to Romania


Evolution of the Spent Fuel Radiotoxic Content

Spent UOX fuel: direct disposal of the irradiated fuel

Standard vitrified waste: glasses with MA and FP from the UOX spent fuel processing (as produced today at La Hague facility)

Vitrified waste without MA: standard vitrified waste (see upper) but without any M.A. (only FP from the UOX spent fuel processing)

One Pu recycling: All TRU after single Pu recycling in PWR

Multiple Pu recycling in PWR: M.A. and F.P. from the UOX and MOX spent fuel processing in case of a scenario with multiple Pu recycling in PWR

Multiple Pu recycling in FR: M.A. and F.P. from the FR spent fuel processing in case of a scenario with multiple Pu recycling in FR

Global recycling (Pu+M.A.) in Gen IV FR: F.P. from the FR spent fuel processing in case of a scenario with multiple Pu and M.A. recycling in FR

Visit to Romania


R&D on Nuclear Waste Management

Partitioning and Transmutation

Partitioning technological demonstration

Transmutation & evaluation report in 2005

  • Atalante laboratory shielded process line CBP

    • 15 kg of spent fuel

    • Np separated

  • Phenix FBR

  • Dedicated irradiation experiments are in progress until 2009

P&T offer the opportunity to reduce considerably the long-lived inventory in radioactive waste

Visit to Romania


Spent fuel management closing the fuel cycle

Chemistry

Natural Uranium

Enrichment

Mines

Enriched

Uranium

Fuel

Fabric.

Uranium recyclable

Recycling :

MOX Fuel

fabrication

Ultimate

Waste

Disposal

Plutonium

Spent Fuel

Reprocessing

Reactors

& Services

Front-End Sector

Reactors & Services Sector

Back-End Sector

Spent Fuel Management : Closing the fuel cycle

A 2 to 6% cost increase in the kWh price of reprocessing and recycling against the once-through option (based on real costs and on a long lasting industrial experience in France)

… to be balanced with clear benefits of recycling :

  • reduction of the volume of final waste

  • more effective use of natural resources (up to 25% reduction of natural uranium consumption)

  • better route to more advanced and efficient nuclear systems (advanced partitioning, transmutation, breeding…)

Closed cycle: A more sustainable policy satisfying the present needs without impairing the capacities of the next generations

Visit to Romania


What nuclear reactors for future
What nuclear reactors for future ?

If the world nuclear park is based on “current” technology with an installed capacity which will remain stable until 2020 and then could grow linearly until 2050, the uranium resources consumed and earmarked in 2050 would be :

The resources of U (15 million tons) will have been earmarked once the installed capacity reaches 1300 GWe

  • Breeding, or at least iso-generation, reactors will therefore be needed before this time.

Technological breakthroughs are needed

Visit to Romania


Gen iv initiative 6 innovative concepts with technological breakthroughs

Closed Fuel

Cycle

Closed Fuel Cycle

Lead Fast Reactor

Gas Fast Reactor

Molten Salt Reactor

Supercritical Water Reactor

Once/Closed

Closed Fuel Cycle

Sodium Fast reactor

Very High Temperature Reactor

GEN-IV Initiative: 6 Innovative concepts with technological breakthroughs

Closed Fuel Cycle

Once Through

Visit to Romania


Most Promising Future Systems for CEA

Sodium technology is the reference technology :

  • Innovations are needed

  • Possibility to build a prototype (300/600 MWe) by 2020

    An alternative technology is needed :

  • Viability and performances to be assessed in 2010, to decide for an experimental reactor (50/100 MWth)

    VHTR technology development in link with process heat needs (synthetic oil, hydrogen…)

Visit to Romania


R d strategy of france for future nuclear energy systems
R&D Strategy of France for Future Nuclear Energy Systems

1 – Development of Fast Reactors with closed fuel cycles, along 2 tracks:

  • Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR)

  • Gas Fast Reactor (GFR)

  • New processes for spent fuel treatment and recycling

  • Industrial deployment around 2040

    2 –Hydrogen production and high temperature process heat supply to the industry

  • Very / High Temperature Reactor (V/HTR)

  • High Temperature Electrolysis and Water splitting processes

    3 – Innovations for LWRs (Fuel, Systems…)

Approved by the French Government in March 2005

Visit to Romania


A prototype reactor in 2020
A Prototype Reactor in 2020

President Chirac statement (Jan 06) :

«  A number of countries are working on future generation reactors, to become operational in 2030-2040, which will produce less waste and will make a better use of fissile materials.

I have decided to launch, starting today, the design work by CEA of a prototype of the 4th generation reactor, which will be commissioned in 2020.

We will naturally welcome industrial or international partners who would like to get involved. »

Visit to Romania


France has a large experience in sfrs

60’s

70’s

80’s

90’s

France has a large experience in SFRs

Visit to Romania


R d on sodium cooled reactors
R&D on Sodium Cooled Reactors

  • Goals : investment cost, safety, operating conditions

    • System simplification : architecture, conversion system - CO2sc, direct cycle or combined (nitrogen-helium)

    • In-service inspection and repair,

    • Advanced materials for structures and fuel,

    • Core safety and notably issues associated with criticality control (void-effect, re-criticality)

  • - Definition of 2 concepts for a sodium cooled reactor :

    • - to illustrate proposed innovations within a global design,

    • - to evaluate resulting economics and associated risks,

    • - to best target the most promising R&D paths,

Visit to Romania


Innovative sfr sketches
Innovative SFR Sketches

Simple bouchon tournant

Large pool type

1500 MWe optimized size

Échangeur intermédiaire à faible dimension radiale

Échangeur puissance résiduelle

dégazeur

PEM

Modular concept with gas conversion system

Échangeur

Circuit primaire à boucle

Visit to Romania


R d on gfr
R&D on GFR

Second FNR path with inert and transparent coolant

  • Technological Challenges :

    • nuclear fuel

    • residual power management

    • materials

  • High power GFR feasibility

  • Experimental Reactor design studies

    • global design, consistent with GFR

    • safety assessment report (SAR)

Visit to Romania


Etdr and 2400 mwth gfr sketches
ETDR and 2400 MWth GFR Sketches

Experimental Reactor

50 MWth

GFR

2400 MWth

Visit to Romania


Nuclear fuel cycle goals

Ude

Ude

Ude

R

T

FP

R

T

FP

R

T

FP MA

MA

U Pu

U Pu MA

U Pu

Nuclear Fuel Cycle Goals

  • Natural resources conservation

  • Waste minimisation

  • Proliferation resistance

  • All paths should be kept available, they could be used in a sequence.

  • U & Pu recycling

    Heterogeneous

    recycling

    Homogeneous recycling (GenIV)

    Visit to Romania


    A european strategy for nuclear energy

    Europe « … the need to keep nuclear power at the heart of Europe’s energy mix  » European Parliament resolution, November 2001

    GIF

    A European strategy for nuclear energy ?

    Some recent events could stimulate a change in the perception of the role of nuclear energy in Europe :

    • The Green Paper

    • The effective participation of EURATOM in the GEN-IV International Forum since September 2003

    • The “International Partnership for the Hydrogen Economy” signed in Washington in November 2003

    • The European awareness of energy dependency (oil or gas)

    Visit to Romania


    What stakes in the involvement of europe in future nuclear energy systems
    What stakes in the involvement of Europe in future nuclear energy systems ?

    • Be ready for the Gen II/III reactors fleet renewal stage by 2040

      • in 2015-2020 be able to choose a fast neutron system technology with an optimized management of actinides

    • Join the international effort to meet future hydrogen needs

      • in 2015-20 be able to choose a nuclear production process

    • Preserve our role of European leader on the international scene

      • Enhance past European experience into innovative technologies (sodium fast reactors, fuel cycle processes…)

      • Develop new technologies to preserve our leadership

    Share the same view and a common strategy

    Visit to Romania


    A european r d parallel to gen iv

    European energy systems ?

    European

    Generation IV

    th

    th

    5

    Framework Programme

    6

    Framework Programme

    International Forum

    ·

    Michelangelo Network

    ·

    ·

    ·

    Very High Temperature

    RAPHAEL (ex V/HTR-IP)

    HTR

    Technology

    Reactor

    (Integrated project)

    (VHTR)

    Network

    ·

    ·

    ·

    Gas Fast Reactor

    (GFR)

    Gas Cooled Fast

    GCFR: Gas Cooled Fast

    Reactor

    (GCFR)

    Reactor

    (Strep)

    ·

    ·

    Supercritical Water

    High Performance LWR

    ·

    HPLWR-II

    (Strep)

    Reactor

    (HPLWR)

    (SCWR)

    ·

    ·

    Molten Salt Reactor

    ·

    Molten Salt Technology

    Molten Salt Reactor

    (SSA under preparation)

    review

    (MOST)

    (MSR)

    Sodium Fast Reactor

    (SSA under preparation)

    ·

    Sodium Fast Reactor

    ·

    (SFR)

    ·

    Lead Fast reactor

    (LFR)

    ·

    VELLA

    (I3 for lead technologies)

    A European R & D parallel to Gen-IV

    Possibilities of direct contributions of Euratom countries to Forum Generation IV, but needs of a coordination

    Visit to Romania


    LWR energy systems ?

    (current & Gen-3)

    Competitiveness and Safety Optimization

    VHTR

    Process Heat, Electricity & H2

    Materials & Fuel Development

    Reactor Design & Safety

    Training and R&D Infrastructures

    Fuel Cycle and Waste Processes

    System Integration

    (Economy, non proliferation …)

    Fast Neutron Systems & Closed Fuel Cycle

    Critical Reactors ADS

    Geological Disposal

    Technologies, design, safety assessment

    Sustainable Nuclear Fission Technology Platform (SNF-TP)

    Launching in 2007

    Visit to Romania


    GoP energy systems ?

    The Strategic Planning Route

    Vision

    2020

    Report of the Group of Personalities

    CA:SNF-TP

    SRA

    The Implementation Route

    The Strategic Research Agenda

    - Revision every 2 years -

    Stakeholders

    Research

    Programs

    Public (EU, National, Euro-control, etc.)

    and

    Private (Industry)

    Research

    Projects

    2004

    2006

    2007

    Establishing SNF-TP: Typical Road Map

    SNF-TP starting

    Visit to Romania


    Structural materials for nuclear fission and fusion
    Structural materials for nuclear fission and fusion energy systems ?

    Research and technology development in material science is a key stake for a sustainable development of fission and fusion nuclear energy :

    • SFR (Sodium Fast Reactor) economical competitiveness has a direct link with the fuel cladding material and the circuits material;

    • Viability and performance of GFR (Gas Fast Reactor) is relying on the development of a refractory fuel.

    • Viability and performances of a fusion reactor have a direct link with blanket and divertor materials

      A common issue : high temperature & high fast neutron flux

    Visit to Romania


    Reactor energy systems ?

    pool

    Access to

    storage pools

    & hot cells

    JHR MTR project

    20 simultaneous experiments coupled with 4 cells, bunkers, fission product on line laboratory, …

    JHR,a 100MW testing reactor

    In core:

    High fast neutron flux

    (up to 1015 n/cm²/s>0,1 MeV)

    Material ageing

    (up to 16 dpa/y)

    Gen IV fuels (GFR)

    In reflector:

    High thermal neutron flux

    (up to 5.5 1014 n/cm²/s)

    Fuel studies

    (up to 600 W/cm

    with a 1% 235U

    PWR rod)

    Displacement systems

    To adjust the fissile power

    JHR characteristics

    51,12m x 46,75m + Φ36,6 m

    Advanced metallic alloys and Ceramic Matrix Composites raise challenging breakthroughs in material science that require a high performance experimental irradiation infrastructure, Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR).

    Visit to Romania


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