Schistosomiasis by cynthia y wright pubh 6165 6
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SCHISTOSOMIASIS by Cynthia Y. Wright Pubh – 6165-6. (Google images, 2009). Schistosomiasis is also known as bilharzia. Schistosomiasis is caused by a parasitic flat worm known as trematode The flat worm parasite is usually found in aquatic type of snails.

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SCHISTOSOMIASIS by Cynthia Y. Wright Pubh – 6165-6

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SCHISTOSOMIASISbyCynthia Y. WrightPubh – 6165-6


(Google images, 2009)

  • Schistosomiasis is also known as bilharzia.

  • Schistosomiasis is caused by a parasitic flat worm known as trematode

  • The flat worm parasite is usually found in aquatic type of snails


Five types of Schistosomiasis species

  • Schistosoma mansoni

  • Schistosoma japonicum

  • Schistosoma mekongi

  • Schistosoma intercalatum

  • Schistosoma haematobium

    (Ross, Bartley, Sleigh, Olds, Li, Williams & McManus, 2002)


Symptoms of schistosomiasis

  • Development of rash or itchy skin

  • Fever

  • Chills

  • Muscle aches


Clinical assessment of schistosomiasis

  • Immediate Manifestation – causes skin reaction in a form of rush.

  • Acute schistosomiasis manifestation – takes 14-84 days for symptoms to appear. Caused through contact with infected water.

  • Chronic schistosomiasis manifestation – occurs when eggs have hatched in the immune system

    (CDC, 2007)


Geographical location parasite dominance

  • Schistosomiasis affects 200 million people around the world

  • In sub-Saharan Africa, most popular known schistosoma parasites are; S. haematobium, S. mansoni and S. intercalatum.

  • Predominantly, about 85% of all severe and normal cases have and occur in the African continent

  • In addition, 500-600 million more people are estimated to be at risk. (WHO, 2009)


s. haematobium (Google images)


Disease prevalence

  • From a specimen of urine and stool collected from 600 people, results showed 27% contained s.haematobium infections, 4% contained mansoni infections with 5% containing mixed infections

  • Therefore from the study, research was able to show the age prevalence concentration of s. haemotobium occurred mostly in children up to 20 years.

    (Ndhlovu, Chandwana, Taylor, Phillips, Sola, Kaondera, Mandaza & Kubara)


Age prevalence & s.haematobium ifnections (Ndhlovu, Chandwana, Taylor, Phillips, Sola, Mandaza & Kubara)


Findings from Research studies

  • Introduction of ultrasounds, have made schistosomiasis diagnoses easier to administer in developing countries (Schwerdfeger & Karloff, 1995)

  • In the next slide, are the various examples of improvements of disease diagnosis in some African countries since the introduction of Ultrasound technology


The presence of sonogra-phical images, clinicians in Zimbabwe were able to identify the cause of esophageal bleeding in patients which were caused by s. hepatoplenic.

Nevertheless, in Tanzania, congestive changes in the kidneys was seen in 29% out of 231 school children with the presence of S. haematobium infections seen at 62%.

(Schwerdfeger & Karloff, 1995)


Moreover, in Congo, common urinary tract infections and bladder difficulties which were caused by s. haematobium, were diagnosed among patients through ultrasound screening

(Schwerdfeger & Karloff, 1995)


Statistical data of parasite prevalence in some African countries(WHO, 2002)


Life cycle of a Schistomiasisparasite

  • First, is the penetration of free swimming larvae into the human skin

  • Bifurcated tails from the larvae helps form the schistosoma parasite

  • Parasite travels through blood vessels into lungs

  • Some parasites are extracted out by urine or feces, however, some get stuck inside the a human body

    (Ross, Bartley, Sleigh, Olds, Li, Williams & McManus, 2002).


Schistomiasis lifecycle diagram (CDC, 2002)


Google images


Control and treatment for the disease

  • Prescription drugs- Availability of Praziquantel (PZQ). A known drug treatment for schistosomiasis.

  • Providing education on sanitation and personal hygiene

  • The control of snail reproduction

  • Government commitment to provide funds to support research work and focus more on the primary health care.

    (WHO, 2006)


Prescription drug (PZQ) given to a patient(Google images)


Sanitation and personal hygiene Google images, 2008


Reference:

  • Watanabe, Kanji.,Mwinzi, N. M. Pauline., Black, L. Carla., Muok, M. O. Erick., Karanja, M.S. Diana., Secor, W.Evan., Colley, G. Daniel (2007). T Regulatory Cell Levels Decrease in People Infected With Schistosoma mansoni on Effective Treatment. Retrieved April 18, 2009 from http://www.ajtmh.org/cgi/content/full/77/4/676

  • Schwerdtfeger-Doehring, Ekkehard., Kardorff, Ruediger (1995). Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz; Ultrasonography in Schistosomiasis in Africa. Institute of Medical Parasitology, University of Bonn, Hannover, Germarny. Retrieved April 18, 2009 from http://www.bioline.org.br/request?oc95031

  • Ross, G. P. Allen, PhD., Bartley, B. Paul, M.B., B.S., Sleigh, C. Adrian, M.B.,B.S., M.S., Olds, Richard. G, M.D., Li, Yuesheng, M.D., PhD., Williams, M. Gail, PhD., McManus, P. Donald, PhD., D.Sc (2002) The New Engalnd Journal of Medicine: Schistosomiasis. Retrieved April 18, 2009 from http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/full/346/16/1212?ijkey=6817bab8fd052ea0b8ddf730a939f657e480df38&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

  • World Health Organization (2009). Schistosomiasis. Retrieved April 18, 2009 from http://www.who.int/topics/schistosomiasis/en/


5. The life cycle of the schistosoma parasite (2002). Da Silva, A. J., Ph.D., Moser, M. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Image retrieved April 27, 2009 from http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.genome.gov/Images/press_photos/lowres/20042-72.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.genome.gov/pressDisplay.cfm%3FphotoID%3D20042&usg=__k-zHixuAoQApKwRuFk14amOxeJw=&h=381&w=500&sz=71&hl=en&start=13&um=1&tbnid=99EYbgjTc7iV1M:&tbnh=99&tbnw=130&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dschistosomiasis%2Bparasite%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox-a%26channel%3Ds%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en-US:official%26sa%3DN%26um%3D1

6. Google images (2009). Schstosomiasis causes swimmers itch, fever symptoms and schistosoma infection treatment. Retrieved April 27, 209 from http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.healthblurbs.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/10/orange-snail.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.healthblurbs.com/schistosomiasis-causes-swimmers-itch-fever-symptoms-and-schistosoma-infection-treatment/&usg=__Qj6nVJroVRNAz-VtTlYTGJwrc7c=&h=229&w=300&sz=14&hl=en&start=11&um=1&tbnid=SQrP_EBpcLy3IM:&tbnh=89&tbnw=116&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dschistosomiasis%2Bparasite%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox-a%26channel%3Ds%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en-US:official%26sa%3DN%26um%3D1


7. Wired Science (2008). Parasites may fuel AIDS epidemic. Image retrieved April 27, 2009 from http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://blog.wired.com/photos/uncategorized/2008/07/23/riverwashing.jpg&imgrefurl=http://blog.wired.com/wiredscience/2008/07/parasites-may-f.html&usg=__I02yPclygjCOtB8Ge4W9XeAXzKE=&h=429&w=800&sz=149&hl=en&start=20&um=1&tbnid=p7FVuEojmRUgPM:&tbnh=77&tbnw=143&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dtypes%2Bof%2Bschistosomiasis%2Bparasite%26ndsp%3D18%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox-a%26channel%3Ds%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en-US:official%26sa%3DN%26start%3D18%26um%3D1

8. Schstosoma haematobium (2004). Image retrieved April 27, 2009 from google images http://www.stanford.edu/class/humbio103/ParaSites2004/Schisto/map.gif

9. Ndhlovu, P.D., Chandwana, S.K., Taylor, P., Phillips, S.M., Sola, P.S.P.M., Kaondera, K.K., Mandaza, G. and Kubara, E. Human immune responses during infection with schistosoma haematobium: Cell mediated immunity. Humanity development library 2.0 retrieved April 27, 2009 from http://nzdl.sadl.uleth.ca/cgi-bin/library.cgi?e=d-00000-00---off-0hdl--00-0----0-10-0---0---0direct-10---4-------0-1l--11-en-50---20-help---00-0-1-00-0-0-11-1-0utfZz-8-00&a=d&cl=CL1.1&d=HASHb35dbf907ec64c6abd14b3.6.1.4

10. Leneler, C., Utzinger, J., Tanner, M. (2002). Public health reviews: Questionnaires for rapid screening of schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. Retrieved April 27, 2009 from http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?pid=S0042-96862002000300010&script=sci_arttext


11. Google images. Retrieved April 27, 2009 from http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.iidmm.uct.ac.za/fbrombacher/images/schistosomiasis1.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.iidmm.uct.ac.za/fbrombacher/research_infectious.htm&usg=__c46kFw2k9cGwrjNZvg-LQwKtqNM=&h=300&w=400&sz=15&hl=en&start=18&um=1&tbnid=_YD9gXNRK2RZNM:&tbnh=93&tbnw=124&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dtypes%2Bof%2Bschistosomiasis%2Bparasite%26ndsp%3D20%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox-a%26channel%3Ds%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en-US:official%26sa%3DN%26um%3D1


Stake holder information

  • Tanzania Public Health Association (TPHA), a National NGO. email contact: [email protected],

  • National Institute for Medical Research (NIMR) Tanzania,website: http://www.nimr.or.tz.,

  • Muhimbili Universtiy of Health and Allied Sciences, website: http://www.muhas.ac.tz

  • Hubert Kairuki Memorial Hospital, website: http://www.hkmu.ac.tz

  • Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Center (KCMC), website: http://www.kcmc.ac.tz

  • Bugando Hospital (The Univeristy College of Health Sciences at Bugando Medical Center, website: http://www.bugando.ac.tz or email contact: [email protected]


stake holder cont.,

  • Canada's Public Health Leader, website: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca.,email contact: [email protected],

  • Mission Hospital Link Tanzania (MHLT), email contact: [email protected],

  • Christian Social Services Commission (CSSC)., website: http://www.cssc.or.tz


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