# Crosstabs - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Crosstabs. Types of relationships. Linear Spurious Intervening Interaction effects Suppression. Linear effects. Theory: National pride (alienation). When people feel alienated from the political system, then they may be more likely to participate in politics.

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Crosstabs

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## Crosstabs

### Types of relationships

• Linear

• Spurious

• Intervening

• Interaction effects

• Suppression

### Theory: National pride (alienation)

• When people feel alienated from the political system, then they may be more likely to participate in politics.

• When people feel national pride in the political system, then they may be less likely to participate in politics.

• Measure:

• How often do you feel ashamed of Russia? very often, rather often, not very often, hardly ever

### Dependent variable: political participation

• People either participate or they do not.

• There are 31 questions about different political activities.

• How should this variable be measured?

### Measure of political participation

freq vars = polpartbes2.

### Crosstabs analysis

• Like a frequency table, it reports how many and what percentage fall into a particular category, but for two variables instead of one

• Not suitable for continuous variables; only for discretely measured variables

• It is sometimes useful to recode a variable with too many categories FOR THE PURPOSES OF ILLUSTRATION ONLY

### Conventions

• the independent variable is arranged across the top of the table

• Percentages should be calculated using COLUMN

• Syntax: crosstabs tables DV by IV /cells = coll.

### Creating collapsed variables

• compute polpartbesc = polpartbes.

• if polpartbes > 1 polpartbesc = 2.

### Syntax: missing and crosstabs

• Some useful syntax:

• missing values ashamerus (7,8,9).

• crosstabs tables = polpartbesc by ashamerus/cells = col/stats = corr.

### Syntax for scatter plot

GRAPH

/SCATTERPLOT(BIVAR)=ashamerus WITH polpartbes

/MISSING=LISTWISE.

Notice that there is no need for extra categorization – so we used polpartbes, not polpartbesc.