The teaching of principles of human geography
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THE TEACHING OF PRINCIPLES OF HUMAN GEOGRAPHY . AT THE SENIOR SCHOOL LEVEL By SAMUEL K. ASIAMAH [email protected] INTRODUCTION.

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THE TEACHING OF PRINCIPLES OF HUMAN GEOGRAPHY

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The teaching of principles of human geography

THE TEACHING OF PRINCIPLES OF HUMAN GEOGRAPHY

AT THE SENIOR SCHOOL LEVEL

By

SAMUEL K. ASIAMAH

[email protected]


Introduction

INTRODUCTION

The performance of students in Geography at the WAEC examinations is yet to reach an acceptable level. In examinations, it is possible to score very high marks in Human Geography. This is achievable only when candidates provide certain words and facts, which examiners look out for.

This paper is aimed at bringing out the easiness of teaching the subject and making students acquire the intricacies in analysing geographical issues and answering questions in Human Geography.

At the WASSCE level, the major topics under the Principles of Human Geography are as follows:

  • Population issues

  • Settlements

  • Manufacturing industries

  • Transportation

  • World Trade


Types of questions on population issues

TYPES OF QUESTIONSON POPULATION ISSUES

Questions are set on Definitions, Causes, Effects and Solutions.

1. Definitions of some concepts such as population census, Population explosion, Overpopulation, population density, birth rate, fertility rate, natural increase.

In teaching, emphasis should be placed on some keywords which should be in the definition.

Eg. Population explosion is the rapiddoubling of the total population of an area.


The teaching of principles of human geography

2. Causes of Population Explosion/High Population Growth/over population/High Population Density in parts of the world

The following factors should be considered:

High birth rate/High fertility rate, low death rate, Early marriages, Inadequate family planning practices, improvement in medical facilities, improvement in hygiene and sanitation, desire for large families, immigration.

If the question demands of the causes in the whole world, it should be noted that immigration is not a factor. This is a common mistake candidates make.


The teaching of principles of human geography

3.Problems/Negative Effects of Population Explosion/Over population/High Population Growth/High population Density

  • Unemployment and underemployment: The rate at which the population grows is greater than the rate at which jobs are created.

  • Pressure on social amenities: eg. Public utilities, hospitals.

  • Increase in social vices/crime: eg prostitution

  • Overcrowding leading to development of slums.

  • Environmental pollution: improper waste disposal

  • Traffic congestion: delay in travelling

  • High cost of living: eg. High cost of goods, services, rents

  • Shortage of food: due to pressure on agricultural lands.

  • High dependency ratio: large number of children and unemployed rely on the few workers.


4 solutions to the problems

4.Solutions to the Problems

In giving solutions to the problems, let students state each problem and its solution.

  • Creation of more jobs: eg. In agriculture

  • Provision of more social amenities: eg. Pipe borne water.

  • Well equipping security agencies to combat crime

  • Provision of more houses to tackle accommodation problems: eg. Flats, estate houses.

  • Contracting private waste disposal agencies.

  • Constructing multiple lane roads, interchanges, by-passes.

  • Efforts to improve food production: eg. Irrigation.


Manufacturing industries factors favouring location of industries

MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIESFactors Favouring location of Industries

  • Raw material: source and example.

  • Market/Large population base: internal and

    external markets

  • Transport network: eg. Road, harbours

  • Power supply: source eg. Hydroelectric power

  • Capital base: banks, stock exchange, sale of

    shares

  • Favourable government policies: tax holidays

  • Access to abundant skilled labour: Tertiary institutions train skilled labour eg. Managers, access to migrant labour


Characteristics of manufacturing industries

Characteristics of Manufacturing Industries

This should be treated under the following:

  • Location: eg. Everywhere/near raw material

  • Labour force: females/male; labour intensive, etc.

  • Capital: capital intensive, source of capital.

  • Technology used: light equipment/heavy equipment

  • Nature of products: light weight or heavy weight.

  • Ownership: by individuals, families, govt., multinational corporations.

  • Raw material: heavy or light; imported or local

  • Power used: large amount to turn heavy machines, 


Importance of manufacturing industries

IMPORTANCE OF MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES

  • Generation of foreign exchange: export of some of the products.

  • Creation of employment avenues: eg. Managers, factory workers.

  • Generation of Government revenue: taxes such as VAT

  • Infrastructural developments: eg. Roads

  • Ensures supplies of goods and services

  • Contributes to gross domestic products.

  • Acquisition of skills on the job: Unskilled labour and semi-skilled labour learn on the job, from in-service training, etc.


Problems facing manufacturing industries

PROBLEMS FACING MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES

Note the problems in Tropical Africa may be different from those in the developed countries.

  • Inadequate capital: due to general poverty, low savings, difficulty in getting bank loans.

  • Inadequate market: due to high taste for foreign goods.

  • Shortage of raw materials: due to seasonal nature/high cost of imported raw materials.

  • Inadequate skilled labour: due to the educational system/ brain-drain.

  • Poor transport facilities: eg. Untarred roads.

  • Inadequate power supplies;Eg. Power-outages.

  • Political instability: Eg. Civil wars, military interventions.

  • High taxation: eg VAT, income tax, import duties, royalties


Regional geography of ghana and africa

REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY OF GHANA AND AFRICA

Drawing of Maps in Human Geography

  • Marks are given for the outline maps. Examiners look out for the capes and bulges in the outline.

  • When a student draws Ghana with bulging side going to the east he/she scores zero.

  • If a candidate draws Africa without Madagascar he/she is penalized and scores only half of the marks for the outline. Take note.

    Locating features on the Map: Symbols are used to locate the features on maps.

  • - Dots for settlements or towns. If the town is near the sea, the dot should not cross the coastline into the sea, otherwise you will score zero.

  • - Irregular shapes are used for areas. E.g. mining area, climatic region, relief, etc. Examiners have observed that many students have difficulty locating a town in a given area on the map. For example, when candidates are asked to draw one area noted for gold mining and one town in the area many use dots to represent an area.

  • - Linear symbols are used for rivers, roads, railway, etc.

  • Marks are given for the correct locations of features.


Naming of features on the map

Naming of features on the map

  • Marks are given for the names of the features. Write each feature’s name against its symbol.

  • You may also prepare a key for the symbols.

  • Note: (a) If pencil is used in drawing the symbols on the map, the same pencil should be used for the symbols in the key.

  • (b) If the insertions are not named or a key is not prepared, the whole insertions score zero.


Description of vegetations in ghana and africa

Description of Vegetations in Ghana and Africa

The following points should be used:

  • Height of trees or grasses

  • Leaves: evergreen, deciduous, broad or needle-like, numerous or few stomata/feathery leaves.

  • Branches: near the crown or at all levels of the stem.

  • Trunk or stem: thin or thick barks, smooth or rough barks, hard or soft woods/tussocky grass stem

  • Roots: buttresses, deep roots, fibrous roots

  • Shape of plants: Eg. Umbrella shape.

  • Plant species: lianas, parasitic plants, odum, elephant grass

  • Tree stands: mixed or pure.

  • Plant adaptations


Thank you

THANK YOU


Thank you1

THANK YOU


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THANK YOU


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