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The Salamanca Statement. Probably, at present, the most important international policy document about inclusion Actually 2 documents: THE SALAMANCA STATEMENT FRAMEWORK FOR ACTION ON SPECIAL NEEDS EDUCATION . The Salamanca Statement. UNESCO meeting in Salamancain Spain 7-10 of June. -1994

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The Salamanca Statement

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The Salamanca Statement

  • Probably, at present, the most important international policy document about inclusion

  • Actually 2 documents:

    • THE SALAMANCA STATEMENT

    • FRAMEWORK FOR ACTION

      ON SPECIAL NEEDS EDUCATION


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The Salamanca Statement

  • UNESCO meeting in Salamancain Spain 7-10 of June. -1994

  • 300 participants

  • representing 92 governments

  • 25 international organisations

  • Gives concrete guidelines for action and responsibility


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The Salamanca Statement

Build on:

  • Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)

  • Conclusions from “The World Conference on Education for All” (1990)

  • United Nations “Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities” (1993)


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Introducing on international policy basis:

  • Inclusion:

    • Inclusive Schools

    • Inclusive Schooling

    • Integrated Education

    • Adaptive systems/adaptive education


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Recognizing that:

  • Every child has a fundamental right to education

  • Every child has unique characteristics, interests, abilities and learning needs

  • Education systems should be designed and educational programmes implemented to meet these diversities among children

  • Students with special needs must have access to regular schools with adapted education

  • Regular schools with an inclusive orientation are the most effective means of combating and preventing discriminative attitudes and building up an inclusive society


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National authorities/governments shall:

  • Improve the education system so it can include all students

  • Adopt the principle of inclusive education in the legislation system to enrol all children

  • Develop demonstration project

  • Establish decentralized systems and user participation in planning, monitoring and evaluation

  • Encourage the participation of parents and relevant user organisation

  • Pay attention to early identification of special needs and Early Intervention

  • Give relevant education, further education, training and support to teachers and other relevant professionals


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and…. The governments shall also

  • Emphasise the international cooperation within programs of education for all

  • Emphasise the importance of Special Needs Education as an integrated part of teacher education and training programs

  • Involve the NGO’s


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Framework for Action – 4 parts

  • In addition to an “introduction”– there are 3 parts:

  • New thinking in special needs education

  • Guidelines for the national level

  • Guidelines for regional and international level


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Introduction – some premises

  • The importance of an open process

  • What is all children?

  • More attention shall be paid to possibilities than to limitations

  • The education shall be adapted to the student and not opposite


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What is new perspective on special needs education?

  • Inclusion and participation assume that students with disabilities attend ordinary kindergartens and schools on the local environment

  • The fundamental principle is that all children are toghether as much as possible

  • Inclusive education of high quality should focus on:

    • curriculum,

    • organizational arrangements,

    • teaching strategies

    • resource use

    • Partnership with the coomunities


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What is new perspective on special needs education?

  • Inclusive education demands a focus on peers. This implies that special units, special classes and schools should be used to a limited extent, and as exception form ordinary education

  • Special needs education varies enormously from country to country. If a country has to have special schools they should function as resource centres for regular schools

  • Countries with a limited number of special schools should be advised to establish mainstream-inclusive schools


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What is new perspective on special needs education?

  • The governmental planning of education should concentrate on all persons, in all regions of the country and in all economic conditions

  • Special needs education policy represent a new approach. That’s why adults with disabilities should have special attention.

  • Girls and women are often discriminated. Women and men should have equal influence and opportunities

  • To make EFA effective it should be plans on the local, regional and national plan


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The national level – some point of special interest

  • Legislation should recognize the principles of EFA in primary, secondary and tertiary education

  • Parallel and complementary legislative measures should be adopted in the fields of health, social welfare vocational training and employment

  • Special attention should be paid to the needs of children with severe and multiple disabilities

  • CBR-programs and services should be developed in parallel with inclusive education

  • The organisation of effective education – particular for students with disabilities – is depending on high quality school management


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The national level – some point of special interest

  • School management includes the responsibility of effective cooperation between teachers and other experts

  • Each school should be responsible for each student’s development – not only the individual teacher

  • Further education of teachers in special needs education should be a part of a plan

  • A main challenge for schools are in-service training

  • The importance of a flexible curriculum, adapted to the children's’ needs


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The national level – some point of special interest

  • The importance of coordination of local, regional and national services and organisations

  • We know that the success of an incusive policy in schools are depending on early identification and intervention

  • Education of children with special educational needs is a shared task between parents and professionals

  • Parents should make the final decision concerning extra services and special needs education


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