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Getting Results: Impacting Each Student within All Students. Going Deeper with TBTs and the Ohio 5-Step Process. Going Deeper with TBTs and the Ohio 5-Step Process. 2011-2012 SPDG Professional Development. Our Targets For Today. Linking Assessment to Instruction.

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Going Deeper with TBTs and the Ohio 5-Step Process

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Getting Results:

Impacting Each Student within All Students

Going Deeper with TBTs and the Ohio 5-Step Process

Going Deeper with TBTs and the Ohio 5-Step Process

2011-2012 SPDG Professional Development

Our Targets For Today

Linking Assessment to Instruction

Differentiation and Universal Design for Learning

Differentiation and Multiple Intelligences

TBT Step 3: Planning for High Quality Instruction

School and Classroom Practice


Training Outcomes: TBT Protocol Step 3

  • Evaluate the difference between LRE compliance and achievement for all students

  • Understand the link between formative assessment and planning for instruction

  • Analyze how Multiple Intelligences, Differentiation and Universal Design for Learning Support ALL students.

The Ohio



A Cycle of Inquiry

Prove It Activity: HOW We Teach

In pairs, choose one of the quotes below and “prove” it wrong by providing evidence of specific examples you have seen recently in the classroom.

Give each person 30 seconds to share with partner.

All available evidence suggests that classroom practice has changed little in the

past 100 years.

James Stigler and James Hiebert 2009

There is a lot of sitting and listening and

not a lot of thinking.

Robert Pianta 2008 (on his observation of more than 1,000 classrooms)

Current Challenges

  • increased diversity in classrooms

  • high expectations for all students

  • high stakes testing

  • accountability for all students

Think About Your Classroom

How many students have:

  • Visual issues

  • Attention difficulties

  • Auditory issues

  • Reading disabilities

Greater Access to Curriculum and Instruction

LEAs have increased the number of students who spend 80% or more of their school day in regular classrooms.

Ohio now is near the national average for this placement.

Settings Have Changed

IEP teams continue to include more children in regular classrooms, while avoiding separate placements.

Performance Has Improved….But the Gap Hasn’t Closed

I contend that to integrate requires the teacher to plan lessons that actually require the student with special needs to actively participate in the learning. Inclusion, on the other hand, simply requires the students be placed physically in a regular classroom without any real expectation that the student will be participating intellectually in what the rest of the class is learning.

Ainsley B. Rose 2009

Students with Disabilities

Achievement – not merely compliance

What planning must occur at Step 3, so that our core instruction addresses the diverse needs of ALL students in our classrooms?

Step 3

Establish shared expectations for implementing specific effective changes in the classroom



5 Step TBT Process

Assessment and instruction are often conceived as curiously separate in both time and purpose. The key to high-quality formative assessment is to intertwine the two.

Graue 1993

Step 1

Collect and chart data

If we have deconstructed our embedded learning targets, and our assessments provide us formative feedback,

then how do we link instruction to the results of our assessments, KNOWING there is learner diversityin every classroom?

Step 2

Analyze student work specific to the data

Step 3

Establish shared expectations for implementing specific effective changes in the classroom

Formative Assessment Instruction

Case Study - Modified Jigsaw

  • Number the tables 1,2,3

  • Table will read their assigned case study and answer the preview questions (5 minutes)

  • Form triads of a 1s, 2s and 3s

  • Summarize your case study and share out table responses (1 minute each)

The Bridge from Content to Learner

Differentiated Instruction

Multiple Intelligences

Does Differentiated Instruction Look Like This?!

Differentiated Instruction Features

Formative Assessment


Data are gathered to identify student needs

Areas of requisite growth are clearly identified

Student understanding is monitored

Instruction is based in students’ assessed readiness and starting points in order to learn

Each student gets what assessment data indicate he/she needs to progress

Needs and learning style are measured through ongoing formative assessment, and instruction is customized accordingly

Scaffolding, tiered activities, and grouping are based on assessment needs

Different resources and measures are used

Peer and self-assessment inform learning

  • Responsive to individual needs

  • Teaching is planned to ensure maximum growth

  • Learning is guided

  • Instruction is purposefully planned

  • Each student is treated fairly

  • Teaching is designed to meet individual needs and learning style

  • Content is modified

  • Instruction is student focused

What Teachers Really Need to Know about Formative Assessment pg. 147

Let’s Use What We Know…

  • In triads, review the following charts together:

    • Differentiated Instruction Features vs. Formative Assessment Features

    • Multiple Intelligences and Formative Assessment

  • Discussion points:

    • How can formative assessments be used to develop differentiated instruction?

    • How can multiple intelligences be considered in formative assessments?

    • How should differentiated instruction reflect and support students’ multiple intelligences in any given classroom?

A Differentiated Classroom Video Clip

“ (Differentiated Instruction) provides different avenues to acquiring content, to processing or making sense of ideas, and to developing products so that each student can learn effectively.”

(Tomlinson, 2001 p.1)

A Differentiated Classroom Video Clip

Co-Teaching Approaches

  • One Teach, One Observe – Co-teachers decide in advance what types of specific observational information to gather during instruction and can agree on a system for gathering the data. Afterward, the teachers should analyze the information together. The teachers should take turns teaching and gathering data, rather than assuming that the special educator is the only person who should observe.

  • Station Teaching – Co-teachers divide content and students. Each teacher then teaches the content to one group and subsequently repeats the instruction for the other group. If appropriate, a third "station" could give students an opportunity to work independently. As co-teachers become comfortable with their partnership, they may add groups or otherwise create variations of this model.

  • Parallel Teaching – Co-teachers are both teaching the same information, but they do so to a divided class group. Parallel also may be used to vary learning experiences, for example, by providing manipulatives to one group but not the other or by having the groups read about the same topic but at different levels of difficulty.

  • Alternative Teaching – one teacher takes responsibility for the large group while the other works with a smaller group. These smaller groups could be used for remediation, pre-teaching, to help students who have been absent catch up on key instruction, assessment, and so on.

  • Teaming– both teachers share delivery of the same instruction to a whole student group. Some teachers refer to this as having “one brain in two bodies.” Others call it “tag team teaching.” Most co-teachers consider this approach the most complex but satisfying way to co-teach, but it is the approach that is most dependent on teachers’ styles.

  • One Teach, One Assist -one teacher keeps primary responsibility for teaching while the other professional circulated through the room providing unobtrusive assistance to students as needed. This should be the least often employed co-teaching approach.

Which Is Over-used? Why?

  • One Teach, One Observe

  • Station Teaching

  • Parallel Teaching

  • Alternative Teaching

  • Teaming

  • One Teaching, One Assisting

Which Can Be the Most Difficult?

  • One Teach, One Observe

  • Station Teaching

  • Parallel Teaching

  • Alternative Teaching

  • Teaming

  • One Teaching, One Assisting

Understanding… Specialized Instruction

  • Occurs above and beyond Core Instruction

  • If on a student’s IEP, all team members must be fully versed in and utilize as part of instructional planning

  • During TBT Step 3, Intervention Specialist guides team members

From Melody Musgrove, Director of Office of Special Education Programs, USDOE, 2011 Ohio Special Education Leadership Conference

“Special Ed was never designed to be a place. It was meant to be specially designed instruction.”

Specially Designed Instruction Defined:

“Adapting as appropriate to the needs of an eligible child, the content, methodology or delivery of instruction to address the unique needs of the child that result from the child’s disability and to ensure access of the child to the general education curriculum so the child can meet the educational standards that apply to all children within the jurisdiction of the school district.”

From OSEP (Office of Special Education Pograms), USDOE

Teacher Based Teams:

Impacting Each Student within All Students

through use of effective instructional practices !

Carousel Reflection

  • What should be considered when connecting instruction to formative assessment?

  • What are the key ideas of Universal Design for Learning?

  • What are the key ideas of Differentiated Instruction?

  • What are the most significant barriers to learner success?

  • What are the most significant factors for ensuring student success?

Our Targets From Today

Linking Assessment to Instruction

Differentiation and Universal Design for Learning

Differentiation and Multiple Intelligences






hard work!



  • ttp://


  • Teaching Every Student in the Digital Age: Universal Design for Learning, David H. Rose & Anne Meyer. ASCD, 2002



This document/product/software was supported in whole or in part by the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs, (Award  #Q27A090111A, CFDA 84.027A, awarded to the Ohio Department of Education).  The opinions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect the policy or position of the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs, and no official endorsement by the Department should be inferred.

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