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Electronics, microelectronics, nanoelectronics, … Part II. Mizsei , János www.eet.bme.hu. Outline. nanoscale effects 3-2-1-0 dimensions atomic scales : different transport mechanisms ( thermal , electrical , mechanical ) technology at nanoscale lithography by nanoballs nanoimprint

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slide5

Outline

  • nanoscaleeffects
  • 3-2-1-0 dimensions
  • atomicscales: differenttransportmechanisms (thermal, electrical, mechanical)
  • technologyatnanoscale
  • lithographybynanoballs
  • nanoimprint
  • Langmuir-Blodgetttechnology
  • MBE – molecularbeamepitaxy
  • FIB – focused ion beam
  • AFM, STM processes
  • nanoscaledevices
  • QWFET
  • singleelectrondevices
  • nanotubes
  • nanorelays
  • organic molecular integrated circuits
  • vacuum-electronics
  • spintronics
  • kvantum-computing
  • oxideelectronics
  • thermalcomputing
nanoscale effects
Nanoscale effects
  • density of states for
  • 3
      • 2
      • 1
      • 0 dimension objects
  • tunnelling
  • surface/interfacescattering
  • ballistictransport
technologies at nanoscale
Technologies at nanoscale
  • lithographybynanoballs
  • nanoimprint
  • Langmuir-Blodgetttechnology
  • MBE – molecularbeamepitaxy
  • FIB – focused ion beam
  • AFM, STM processes
langmuir blodgett technology
Langmuir-Blodgett technology

formolecularmonolayer

mbe molecular beam epitaxy
MBE – molecular beam epitaxy

Computer controlledevaporation (PVD)

fib focused ion beam1
FIB – focused ion beam
  • Applications of FIB:
  • cross-sectional imaging through semiconductor devices (or any layered structure)
  • modification of the electrical routing on semiconductor devices
  • failure analysis
  • preparation for physico-chemical analysis
  • preparation of specimens for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or other analysis
  • micro-machining
  • mask repair
fib focused ion beam2
FIB – focused ion beam

FIB drilled nanoholeforthermalnanoswitchwithPtoverlayer

afm processes
AFM processes

Hotplatefor AFM excitedagglomeration and peeloff

Nanostructures by AFM tip excitation of hot (120 oC) silver nanolayers

afm processes1
AFM processes

Quantum corall by AFM tip (Fe on Cu surface)

microscopic charges on sio 2 surfaces
Microscopic charges on SiO2 surfaces

Si: P type, <100>, 10 ohmcm

100 nm native oxide oxide

charging process afm conducting wire
Charging process:(AFM, “conducting wire”)

Measuring process:

(Kelvin electric force microscopy)

Low resolution, compared to the charging process !

11 30 29 am fri aug 19 2005
11:30:29 AM Fri Aug 19 2005

3 V

2

1

-1

-2

-3

04:11:07 PM Thu Aug 18 2005

3 V

2

1

-1

-2

-3

11 30 29 am fri aug 19 20051
11:30:29 AM Fri Aug 19 2005

Only after 300 C heat treatment !

3 V

2

1

-1

-2

-3

04:11:07 PM Thu Aug 18 2005

3 V

2

1

-1

-2

-3

microscopic charge on the sio 2 surface
Microscopic charge on the SiO2 surface

Extremely high and inhomogeneous electric field:

700000V/m

nanoscale devices
Nanoscale devices
  • QWFET
  • singleelectrondevices
  • nanotubes
  • nanorelays
  • organic molecular integrated circuits
  • vacuum-electronics
  • spintronics
  • oxideelectronics
  • thermalcomputing
qwfet quantum well fet
QWFET – quantum well fet
  • low bandgap enables lower supply voltage
  • higher bangap substrate helps to keep electrons in the channel
  • higher mobility results in higher current

Schottky-barriertype (depletion) device

qwfet
QWFET
  • Problematic point: compound semiconductor in Si based technology
advantages of qwfet
Advantages of QWFET
  • higher speed at lower power dissipation
single electron devices charge memory
Single electron devices: charge-memory
  • SET read-out
  • 50 nm head-surfacedistance
  • ~10 nm grainsize
  • ~10 Terabit/inch2
carbon
Carbon
  • diamond
  • graphite
carbon n anotubes as quantum wires
Carbon nanotubes as quantum wires

density of statesdependingofchirality

micro and n anorelays
Micro-, and nanorelays
  • nanorelays: instable mechanical movement, stick down

Nanorelays

o rganic molecular integrated circuits2
Organic molecular integrated circuits
  • Problems with the organic molecular ICs:
  • technology (it has not been realised until now)
  • metal contacts and wires (atomic contact)
  • chemical instability
  • slow operation depending on number of electrons/bit ratio
vacuum electronics n anosised vacuum tube
Vacuum-electronics: nanosised „Vacuum tube”
  • Vertical field emission: Lateral field emission:
  • MOSFET- like
  • gated devices
field emission
Field emission
  • by gate control
technology
Technology

resistplasmatreatment and reflow

spin einstein de haas effect
Spin: Einstein–de Haas effect

Switch on and off with the resonance frequency of the suspended mass

gmr giant magnetoresistance
GMR - giant magnetoresistance

Lowresistancehighresistance

slide56

Oxygen vacancy drift bipolar switching mechanism

for representative n-type oxide

(A) In high resistance state, there is a lack of

oxygen vacancies at the interface. Carriers must overcome Schottky barrier

to contribute to current. (B) In low resistance state, oxygen vacancies accumulate

at the interface, reducing depletion width such that tunneling ispossible

switchable pt tio x pt rectifier
Switchable Pt/TiOx/Pt rectifier

Oppositepolarity

voltage pulses control location of oxygen vacancies, which determines

which contact is rectifying and which is Ohmic

experimental demonstration of spike timing dependent plasticity stdp in pt cu 2 o w device
Experimental demonstration of spike-timing dependentplasticity (STDP) in Pt/Cu2O/W device

(A) I-V curves of MIM device

showing bipolar resistive switching.

(B) For Dt>0 (pre-synaptic pulse

fires before post-synaptic pulse), the synaptic weight increases, while for Dt<0, the synaptic weight decreases, in accordance with STDP.

Appl. Phys. A, S.-J. Choi, G.-B. Kim, K. Lee, K.-H. Kim, W.-Y.

Yang, S. Cho, H.-J. Bae, D.-S. Seo, S.-I. Kim, and K.-J. Lee, Synaptic

behaviors of a single metal–oxide–metal resistive device, 102, 1019, 2011

ethical issues concerning the nanotechnology
Ethical issues concerning the nanotechnology
  • „nano” is a good idea and a good word to get money from the government or from the EU
  • many nanoobject have not fully been tested, some of them could be dangerous for health (?)
  • self replicating nanomachines may live their own life -> catastrophe ?
slide62

Problemswith CMOS

  • device limits (6 or even more interfaces)
  • scale down: depletion layers, gate-tunnel current -> direct tunnel distance: 2 nm)
end of part ii
End of part II

www.eet.bme.hu

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