Electronics microelectronics nanoelectronics part ii
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Electronics, microelectronics, nanoelectronics, … Part II. Mizsei , János www.eet.bme.hu. Outline. nanoscale effects 3-2-1-0 dimensions atomic scales : different transport mechanisms ( thermal , electrical , mechanical ) technology at nanoscale lithography by nanoballs nanoimprint

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Electronics, microelectronics, nanoelectronics, … Part II

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Electronics, microelectronics, nanoelectronics, …Part II

Mizsei, Jánoswww.eet.bme.hu


Outline

  • nanoscaleeffects

  • 3-2-1-0 dimensions

  • atomicscales: differenttransportmechanisms (thermal, electrical, mechanical)

  • technologyatnanoscale

  • lithographybynanoballs

  • nanoimprint

  • Langmuir-Blodgetttechnology

  • MBE – molecularbeamepitaxy

  • FIB – focused ion beam

  • AFM, STM processes

  • nanoscaledevices

  • QWFET

  • singleelectrondevices

  • nanotubes

  • nanorelays

  • organic molecular integrated circuits

  • vacuum-electronics

  • spintronics

  • kvantum-computing

  • oxideelectronics

  • thermalcomputing


Nanoscale effects

  • density of states for

  • 3

    • 2

    • 1

    • 0 dimension objects

  • tunnelling

  • surface/interfacescattering

  • ballistictransport


Technologies at nanoscale

  • lithographybynanoballs

  • nanoimprint

  • Langmuir-Blodgetttechnology

  • MBE – molecularbeamepitaxy

  • FIB – focused ion beam

  • AFM, STM processes


Lithographybynanoballs


Nanoimprint


Nanoimprint


Langmuir-Blodgett technology

formolecularmonolayer


MBE – molecular beam epitaxy

Computer controlledevaporation (PVD)


MBE – molecular beam epitaxy


FIB – focused ion beam


FIB – focused ion beam

  • Applications of FIB:

  • cross-sectional imaging through semiconductor devices (or any layered structure)

  • modification of the electrical routing on semiconductor devices

  • failure analysis

  • preparation for physico-chemical analysis

  • preparation of specimens for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or other analysis

  • micro-machining

  • mask repair


FIB – focused ion beam

FIB drilled nanoholeforthermalnanoswitchwithPtoverlayer


AFM processes

Hotplatefor AFM excitedagglomeration and peeloff

Nanostructures by AFM tip excitation of hot (120 oC) silver nanolayers


AFM processes

Quantum corall by AFM tip (Fe on Cu surface)


AFM processes: anodic oxidation by AFM tip


Microscopic charges on SiO2 surfaces

Si: P type, <100>, 10 ohmcm

100 nm native oxideoxide


Charging process:(AFM, “conducting wire”)

Measuring process:

(Kelvin electric force microscopy)

Low resolution, compared to the charging process !


11:30:29 AM Fri Aug 19 2005

3 V

2

1

-1

-2

-3

04:11:07 PM Thu Aug 18 2005

3 V

2

1

-1

-2

-3


11:30:29 AM Fri Aug 19 2005

Only after 300 C heat treatment !

3 V

2

1

-1

-2

-3

04:11:07 PM Thu Aug 18 2005

3 V

2

1

-1

-2

-3


Microscopic charge on the SiO2 surface

Extremely high and inhomogeneous electric field:

700000V/m


Nanoscale devices

  • QWFET

  • singleelectrondevices

  • nanotubes

  • nanorelays

  • organic molecular integrated circuits

  • vacuum-electronics

  • spintronics

  • oxideelectronics

  • thermalcomputing


QWFET – quantum well fet

  • low bandgap enables lower supply voltage

  • higher bangap substrate helps to keep electrons in the channel

  • higher mobility results in higher current

Schottky-barriertype (depletion) device


QWFET

  • Problematic point: compound semiconductor in Si based technology


Advantages of QWFET

  • higher speed at lower power dissipation


Single electron transistor - SET


Fabrication of SET by STM tip anodisation


Single electron devices: charge-memory

  • SET read-out

  • 50 nm head-surfacedistance

  • ~10 nm grainsize

  • ~10 Terabit/inch2


Carbon

  • diamond

  • graphite


Graphene, carbon nanotubes


Carbon nanotubes as quantum wires

density of statesdependingofchirality


Carbonnanotubedevices: CNT


Micro-, and nanorelays

  • nanorelays: instable mechanical movement, stick down

Nanorelays


Molecularsingleelectronswitchingtransistor (MOSES)

Atom relaytransistor (ART)


Organic molecular integrated circuits


Organic molecular integrated circuits

~100 nm2


Organic molecular integrated circuits

  • Problems with the organic molecular ICs:

  • technology (it has not been realised until now)

  • metal contacts and wires (atomic contact)

  • chemical instability

  • slow operation depending on number of electrons/bit ratio


Vacuum-electronics: nanosised „Vacuum tube”

  • Vertical field emission: Lateral field emission:

  • MOSFET- like

  • gated devices


Field emission

  • by gate control


Technology

resistplasmatreatment and reflow


Characteristics of the nanosised „Vacuum tube”


Spintronics, Stern-Gerlach experiment


Spin: Einstein–de Haas effect

Switch on and off with the resonance frequency of the suspended mass


GMR - giant magnetoresistance

Lowresistancehighresistance


Spin- valve MRAM


Spin- transistor on


Spin- transistor off


Quantum dot (QD) logika

Inverter


Oxide electronics


S. D. Ha and S. Ramanathan J. Appl. Phys. 110, 071101 (2011)


Oxygen vacancy drift bipolar switching mechanism

for representative n-type oxide

(A) In high resistance state, there is a lack of

oxygen vacancies at the interface. Carriers must overcome Schottky barrier

to contribute to current. (B) In low resistance state, oxygen vacancies accumulate

at the interface, reducing depletion width such that tunneling ispossible


Switchable Pt/TiOx/Pt rectifier

Oppositepolarity

voltage pulses control location of oxygen vacancies, which determines

which contact is rectifying and which is Ohmic


Experimental demonstration of spike-timing dependentplasticity (STDP) in Pt/Cu2O/W device

(A) I-V curves of MIM device

showing bipolar resistive switching.

(B) For Dt>0 (pre-synaptic pulse

fires before post-synaptic pulse), the synaptic weight increases, while for Dt<0, the synaptic weight decreases, in accordance with STDP.

Appl. Phys. A, S.-J. Choi, G.-B. Kim, K. Lee, K.-H. Kim, W.-Y.

Yang, S. Cho, H.-J. Bae, D.-S. Seo, S.-I. Kim, and K.-J. Lee, Synaptic

behaviors of a single metal–oxide–metal resistive device, 102, 1019, 2011


„Nothingbeatsscaledsiliconbutnanotechnologycancomplement”


Ethical issues concerning the nanotechnology

  • „nano” is a good idea and a good word to get money from the government or from the EU

  • many nanoobject have not fully been tested, some of them could be dangerous for health (?)

  • self replicating nanomachines may live their own life -> catastrophe ?


Problemswith CMOS

  • device limits (6 or even more interfaces)

  • scale down: depletion layers, gate-tunnel current -> direct tunnel distance: 2 nm)


Problems with the nano self-replicated machines


End of part II

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