Water disputes
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Water Disputes. “Thousands have lived without love, no one without water.”. Water Disputes. History 1947 Punjab, Sindh and Bahawalpur were dependant of the water of Madhupur and Feropur head works Madhupur Ravi, upper bari doaab Feropur

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Water disputes

Water Disputes

“Thousands have lived without love, no one without water.”


Water disputes1

Water Disputes

  • History 1947

    • Punjab, Sindh and Bahawalpur were dependant of the water of Madhupur and Feropur head works

    • Madhupur

      • Ravi, upper baridoaab

    • Feropur

      • Satlug ,Lower barridoaab ,Debalpur, Eserman Stream for Bahawapur

  • Committee B (Responsible for division of Punjab) decleared ,water disputes ;settled !

    • Punjab High Court Judges, Justice Din Muhammad and Justice Muhammad Munir, both nominees of the Muslim League, and Justice MehrChandMahajan and Justice Teja Singh (nominees of the Indian National Congress).


Water disputes

Cont…

  • Tenure of Commission ended on 31-03-1948 and India stopped water on 01-04-1948

    • 04-05-1948 water restored on humanitarian grounds

      • Ch.Muhammad Ali “it was criminal negligence” by Committee-B (emergence of Pakistan)

  • 1954 foil attempt of WB to settle the issue

  • 1958, Water was stopped again


Water disputes

HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

  • Indus River System, Sutlej, Ravi, Beas, Chenab, Jhelum, Indus – 168 MAF (pre-partition).

  • Punjab Irrigation System – the largest Irrigation Network Drawing 107,350 cusecs from Indus River System.

  • Important Headworks at Ferozepure and Madhupur which fed about 1.7 million Acres in Western Punjab (Pakistan) were given to Eastern Punjab (India).

  • Chairman Boundary Commission Cyril Radcliffe assumed in his award that existing system will continue.

  • “I think it only right to express the hope that, where the drawing of a boundary line cannot avoid disrupting such unitary services as canal irrigation, railways and electric power transmission, a solution may be found between the two states for some joint control of what has hitherto been a valuable common service.”


Water disputes

HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE


Water disputes

CLAIM OF PARTIES

  • Pakistan

    • Existing (Historical) uses to be sacred

    • Excess water could be divided according to area and population etc.

    • The principle had support of several treaties

  • India’s Claim

    • Upper riparian has an absolute right

    • Lower riparian can only get it under an agreement or treaty


Water disputes

RESOLUTION OF DISPUTE

  • World Bank’s offer to the two Prime Ministers – 6th September, 1951

  • Difficulties in resolution

  • World Bank’s proposal – 5th February, 1954

  • Resolution in terms of Treaty

  • Contribution by friendly countries for Replacement Works


Water disputes

BASIS FOR RESOLUTION

  • Due to the availability of water in Western Rivers, the replacement works could be a solution

  • World Bank to provide grants and loansto construct replacement works

  • Independent control and regulation of works


Water disputes

REPLACEMENT WORKS

LINK CANALS

CAPACITY (CUSECS)

LENGTH (MILES)

EXCAVATION (MILLION CU. YDS.)

1. TRIMMU-SIDHNAI

11,000

44

21.0

2. SIDHNAI-MAILSI

10,100

62

31.3

3. MAILSI-BAHAWAL

3,900

10

2.4

4. RASUL-QADIRABAD

19,000

30

38.3

5. QADIRABAD-BALLOKI

18,600

80

80.3

6. L.C.C. FEEDER

4,100

20

8.0

7. BOLLIKI-SULEIMANDE-II

6,500

39

20.5

8. CHASHMA-JHELUM

21,700

63

118.9

9. TAUNSA-PANJNAD

12,000

38

22.5

LINK CANALS

Cont…/2


Water disputes

REPLACEMENT WORKS

BARRAGE

RIVER

FLOOD OF RECORD (CUSECS)

DESIGN FLOOD (CUSECS)

LENGTH OF BARRAGE (FEET)

1. SIDHNAI

RAVI

167,000

167,000

712

2. MAILSI SIPHON

SUTLEJ

427,000

429,000

1601

3. QADIRABAD

CHENAB

912,000

900,000

3373

4. RASUL

JHELUM

876,000

850,000

3209

5. CHASHMA

INDUS

1176,000

950,000

3556

6. MARALA

CHENAB

1023,000

1100,000

4472

BARRAGES

Cont…/3


Water disputes

REPLACEMENT WORKS

STORAGE

RIVER

GROSS STORAGE CAPACITY

(MILLION ACRE FEET)

1. MANGLA

JHELUM

4.674

2. CHASHMA

INDUS

0.497

3. TARBELA

INDUS

8.192

STORAGE RESERVOIRS


Scope of treaty

SCOPE OF TREATY

  • Rights and Obligations of Parties

  • Agricultural Uses on Western Rivers

  • Hydroelectric Works

  • Storage Works

  • Settlement of Differences and Disputes

  • Modification of Treaty


Water disputes

EASTERN AND WESTERN RIVERS

  • Eastern Rivers

    • Ravi

    • Sutlej

    • Beas

  • Western Rivers

    • Indus

    • Jhelum

    • Chenab


Provisions regarding western rivers indus jhelum and chenab

PROVISIONS REGARDING WESTERN RIVERS (INDUS, JHELUM AND CHENAB)

  • (1)Pakistan shall receive for unrestricted use all waters of Western Rivers

  • (2)India shall not interfere with the waters of Western Rivers except for following uses:

  • (a) Domestic Use

  • (b) Non-Consumptive use

  • (c) Agricultural Use (limited)

  • (d) Generation of Hydro-electric Power

  • (e) Storage Works (limited)


India s approach to treaty obligations

INDIA’S APPROACH TO TREATY OBLIGATIONS

  • Being a winner, India response was positive

  • Officers of combined Punjab had good working relations

  • After 1965 and 1971 war political environment shadowed technical issues.

  • Intends dilution of Treaty provision


Pakistan s approach to treaty obligations

PAKISTAN’S APPROACH TO TREATY OBLIGATIONS

  • Basis of the Treaty was a conflict between two nations

  • The Treaty was a trade of Western & Eastern Rivers

  • Being lower riparian needs protection of the Treaty

  • Consider the Western rivers as a life line


B aglihar dam issue

Baglihar Dam Issue


Provisions regarding western rivers indus jhelum and chenab1

PROVISIONS REGARDING WESTERN RIVERS (INDUS, JHELUM AND CHENAB)

  • (1)PAKISTAN SHALL RECEIVE FOR UNRESTRICTED USE ALL WATERS OF WESTERN RIVERS

  • (2)INDIA SHALL NOT INTERFERE WITH THE WATERS OF WESTERN RIVERS EXCEPT FOR FOLLOWING USES:

  • (A) DOMESTIC USE

  • (B) NON-CONSUMPTIVE USE

  • (C) AGRICULTURAL USE (LIMITED)

  • (D) GENERATION OF HYDRO-ELECTRIC POWER

  • (E) STORAGE WORKS (LIMITED)


Features of the dam questioned

FEATURES OF THE DAM QUESTIONED

Freeboard

Pondage

Level of Power Intake

Level and Size of Spillway Gates


Water disputes

OUTCOME/DECISION BY NEUTRAL EXPERT

  • Freeboard

    • India’s application of design criteria was wrong. Reduced freeboard by 33% (i.e. from 4.5 m to 3.0 m).

  • Level of Power Intake

    • India wrongly designed and located the power intake. Raised it by 3 m.

  • Pondage

    • Reduced pondage from 37.722 MCM to 32.56 MCM.

  • Spillway

    • India’s analysis is incorrect: “not representative of reality” and is “illusory”.

    • NE suggested no change by invoking international practice and the state of the art.


Water disputes

CURRENT STATUS

The Permanent Indus Commission recently undertook the Tour of Inspection to the site of Baglihar Hydroelectric Plant in order to verify the incorporation in the design of the Project the determination of the Neutral Expert.

  • It was observed that all the changes in design as determined by the Neutral Expert have been incorporated.

  • Decision in favor of INDIA


Wular barrage

Wular Barrage

  • WularLake barrage disrupts the flow of water into the Jhelum River, which flows into Pakistan because the capacity of the  Wular Lake barrage is 3.0MAF while according to the  proviso of an Indus water treaty, to construct an ‘incidental storage capacity’ the design has to be examined and approved by the Pakistan on one hand and the storage capacity does not exceed 0.1 MAF of water


Pakistan s worry

Pakistan’s worry

  • Wular Lake is situated in an Indian occupied Jummu and Kashmir and The River Jhelum flows into the lake

  • According to Indus water treaty India has right to use the water of the Sutlej, the Beas and the Ravi before the point where the river enters into Pakistan whilst the Pakistan has the right over the Jhelum, the Chenab and the Indus river.

  • Pakistan’s main worry was the barrage on that site could jeopardize and effectively damage the three canal system consisting of Upper Jhelum Canal, Upper Chenab Canal and Lower Bari Doab Canal


Kishanganga hep

Kishanganga HEP


Kishanganga hydroelectric plant

Kishanganga Hydroelectric Plant

  • At Jhelum River basin

  • Bandipore in Jammu and Kashmir

  • India and will have an installed capacity of 330 MW

    • Construction on the project began in 2007 and is expected to be complete in 2016

    • Construction on the dam was halted though by the Hague's Permanent Court of Arbitration in October 2011 due to Pakistan's protest of its effect on the flow of the Kishanganga River ,called the Neelum River in Pakistan

    • In February 2013, the Hague ruled that India could divert a minimum amount of water for power generation


Water disputes

Cont…

  • The thought provoking point is why India initiates all projects on the water the rights of which have been given to the  Pakistan

  • India should think that dying cat can strike out the big dog


Nature of dispute of water

Nature of Dispute of Water

  • Initial failure of Boundary Commission Committee B

  • The river water sharing was made an issue by the partition plan

  • Indus Water Treaty- Lost three rivers

  • Interpretation of clauses of IWT

    • Control of Water

      • Storage

      • Flow

      • Usage

      • Diversion of flow

  • Water as War tool

  • Long last issue since 1947

  • Every settlement is after 3rd party interference

  • Water adds to the importance of Kashmir


River system for pakistan

River system for Pakistan

  • Pakistani dependence is many fold:

    • 1) The foremost is Pakistani agricultural dependence.

    • 2) The dams constructed en-route the rivers are the largest source of water supply for irrigation

    • 3) The river water is used for hydroelectric power generation

    • 4) The water is used for drinking.

    • 5) Less importance is that the river water is used as source of sweet water fish in Pakistan.


Importance of water

Importance of Water

  • Life line of Agriculture and Agriculture is life line of Economy

  • Water Issue has two dimensions

  • International- Non Availability of Water may hamper the Survival

    • Dispute with India and Emerging dispute with Afghanistan

  • Internal Dispute-May hamper the national Integration

    • Distribution of Water

  • Total Availability 147 MAF usage 102, Wastage 32

  • Silting of Mangla and Terbela (20-25%)

  • Decrease in Table-Water (75 Meters)

  • Largest Canals Irrigation System dependant on water from Rivers


Important issue to understand

Important issue to understand

  • Rabi –Winter- October to March

  • Khraif-Summer-April to September

  • Mangla gets water from Jehlum-like eastern rivers is an Early river

  • Terbela-Indus- is later river

  • Kharif sowing season starts early in Sindh

  • Sindh gets water from Terbela so Sindh cant get water for early Kharif so Sindh ask water from Mangla

  • When Sindh needs water from Mangla it’s a time to fill Mangla for Punjab-for Rabi about 4 MAF,

  • When Sindh needs water for Kharif sowing


Water disputes

As W.H. Auden says:

“Thousands have lived without love, not one without water.”


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