Ideophones in hindi
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Ideophones in Hindi झिलमिल. Vojtěch Diatka Charles Univeristy prague 24.11.2012. Outline. Weird words in Hindi and their current treatment in grammars – jhijhak (coyness, hesitating) My proposal how to treat them with introducing a new linguistic category to Hindi linguistics

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Ideophones in Hindi झिलमिल

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Ideophones in hindi

Ideophones in Hindiझिलमिल

VojtěchDiatka

Charles Univeristyprague

24.11.2012


Outline

Outline

  • Weird words in Hindi and their current treatment in grammars – jhijhak (coyness, hesitating)

  • My proposal how to treat them with introducing a new linguistic category to Hindi linguistics

  • Concise survey of these weird words

  • Future research


Weird words subsumed under onomatopoeia

„Weird“ words subsumed under Onomatopoeia

  • It contains typical onomatopoeic words

    • budbudānā – to mumble, to mutter

    • cahcahānā – to twitter

    • ṭapṭapānā – to drop

  • BUT it contains also weird words

    • mahmah – with fragrance

    • cupcāp – quitely

    • ṭakṭakī –stare, gaze

  • In Smékal‘s study on reduplication appears one

  • category - Onomatopoeic reduplication

Smékal 1979


Hindi grammarians on weird words

Hindi grammarians on „weird“ words

Treatment

Grammarians

„Simultaneously, it has to be born in mind that

not all the actions described by onomatopoeic

words have to be connected with sounds and

in this sense are not pure ono words, as we know Smékal (1979:6)

them from elsewhere. This is a special way of

expression typical for more Indian languages

where various states and feelings are conveyed

by the quasi onomatopoeia.“

  • Complete omission of onomatopoeia Agnihotri(2007), Pořízka(1972)

  • Brief mention of onomatopoeic wordsKachru(2006:122), Shukla(2001:148-150)

  • and Montaut (2004:160)


What are these words

What are these words?

  • They do not imitate sound

  • They are though subsumed under onomatopeia

  • They are in some respects similar to onotopoeic words


Jhilmil starry night over the rhone v gogh

Glimmer(ing)

Glitter(ing)

Twinkling

Shimmer(ing)

Flicker(ing)

Blazing

झिलमिल jhilmil (Starry Night Over the Rhone – V.Gogh)

„poetry in ordinary language“ (Lautmalerei)

EVANS-PRITCHARD E. E. (1962)


The best crosslinguistic definition

The best crosslinguistic definition

  • They stand out from other words:

    • reduplication

      • budbudānā – to bubble, thartharānā – to tremble, to shiver

    • expressive(marked,subjective element)semantics

      • cipcipā - sticky, clinging, slimy or greasy

    • perceptuallyeXcEpTiOnAl

Ideophones are marked words that depict sensory imagery

Ideophones are marked words that depict sensory imagery

(DINGEMANSE 2011)


The best crosslinguistic definition1

The best crosslinguistic definition

  • They depict rather than describe

    • He said he was coming. X He said: „I am coming.“

  • The crucial feature [of ideophones], then, is not “resemblance to” but “invitation to seeing as”(DINGEMANSE 2011:184)

Ideophones are marked words that depict sensory imagery


The best crosslinguistic definition2

The best crosslinguistic definition

  • They represent not only sensations of outer world

    • Hearing, vision, touch, taste and smell

  • but also interoceptive experiences

    • States of mind, subject evaluations, feelings…

  • hakkā-bakkā – confused, perplexed

  • Gudgud - soft, pulpy

  • cakācaudh - glitter

Ideophones are marked words that depict sensory imagery


Summary

Summary

Perceptually exceptional

Depict rather than describe

Intercoeptive experience

Sensation of outer world

Reduplication


Semantic domains associated with ideophones i n hindi

  • It is not meant to be exhaustive list

  • First survey of ideophones in Hindi

  • representatives of major word classes – verbs, nouns, adjectives

1.Onomatopoia

2.Other traditional senses

3.Manners of movement

4.Interoceptive experience

Semantic domains associated with ideophones in Hindi


Ideophones in hindi

  • Core member of category Ideophones

  • Words imitating sounds

1.Onomatopoia

2.Other traditional senses

3.Manners of movement

4.Interoceptive experience

  • kaṭkaṭānā – to click, to crack (V)

  • susakār – hissing (N)

  • gungunā – mumbling (A)

  • surasurānā - to move like rustling insect (V)

  • pharpharáná – to flutter (as a flag) (V)


Ideophones in hindi

  • Words connected with another human senses - vision, touch, taste and smell

  • Not “resemblance to” but “invitation to seeing as”

  • Not equally distrubuted across all modalities of perception

  • 1.Onomatopoia

    2.Other traditional senses

    3.Manners of movement

    4.Interoceptive experience

    • jhilmilānā – to glitter, to shine (V)

    • gudgudāhaṭ – tickling (N)

    • ṭimṭimā – blazing, glittering (A)

    • phusphusā – soft, tender (A)

    • mahmah – with fragrance (I)


    Ideophones in hindi

    • This category is usually widespread across ideophonic languages (JUNOD 1896:196)

    • Could be subumed under vision

    1.Onomatopoia

    2.Other traditional senses

    3.Manners of movement

    4.Interoceptive experience

    • laplapānā – to spring, to flicker (V)

    • laṛkhaṛāhaṭ– stumbling (N)

    • chaṭpaṭā - wriggling (A)

    • thapthapānā – to pat with love (V)

    • tilmilānā – to convulse in pain (V)


    Ideophones in hindi

    • Not only we have extero-receptors, but also intero-receptors and proprio-receptors

    1.Onomatopoia

    2.Other traditional senses

    3.Manners of movement

    4.Interoceptive experience

    • jhijhaknā – to hesitate (V)

    • hakkābakkā - confused (A)

    • thiṭhak - stiffen (I)

    • gadgad – very happy (I)

    • gumsum – thoughtful (I)


    Future research i

    Future research I

    • Ideophonic meaning is usually inherently vague

    • It is impossible to capture meaning of unit in isolation

      • chaṭpaṭānā – to wriggle / to be restless/ to yearn, to long

      • cipcipā – sticky / adhesive / clinging / slimy, greasy


    Future research ii

    Future research II

    • Ideophones are usually understood as a separate category of words (KILIAN-HATZ 2006:510, DINGEMANSE 2011:133)

    • Semantically and functionally – one unique category

    • Syntactically – two categories

      • genuine ideophones

      • Integrated ideophones


    Future research ii1

    Future research II

    • Genuineideophones

    • caṭ-paṭcapātī - quickly made bread (literally fast bread)

    • caṭ-paṭpatācalegā–it will soon be discovered (it is adverb)

    • Integratedideophones

      (1) phusphusā - fragile, brittle, soft, tender (A)

      (2) laṛkhaṛāhaṭ - stumbling, staggering (N)

      (3) thapthapānā - to pat with affection (V)


    References

    References

    • DINGEMANSE, M. 2011. Ideophones and the aesthetics of everyday language in a West-African society. The Senses & Society, 6(1), 77-85.

    • DINGEMANSE, M. 2011. The Meaning and Use of Ideophones in Siwu. PhD Thesis. RadboundUniveristy Nijmegen.

    • SMÉKAL, ODOLEN. 1979. The Reduplicative Formations and Semantic Pairs in Hindi. In Asian and African Linguistic Studies, StudiaOrientaliaPragensia IX, UniverzitaKarlova.

    • AGNIHOTRI, RAMA, KANT. 2007. Hindi - An essential grammar. Routledge.

    • KACHRU, YAMUNA. 2006. Hindi. In London Oriental and African language library, Volume 12, John BenjaminsBublishing.

    • MONTAUT, ANNIE. 2004. A grammar of Hindi. LincomEuropa.

    • POŘÍZKA, VINCENT. 1972. Hindština(Hindí language course). Praha: Státnípedagogickénakladatelství.

    • SHUKLA, SHALINGRAM. 2001. Hindi Morphology.LincomEuropa.

    • JUNOD, HENRI A. 1896. GrammaireRonga. Lausanne: ImprimerieGeorgesBridel & Cie.

    • KILIAN-HATZ,CHRISTINE. 2006. Ideophones. In Encyclopedia of Language & Linguistics, ed. Keith Brown, 508-512. Oxford: Elsevier.

    • Evans-Pritchard, E. E. 1962. “Ideophones in Zande.” Sudan Notes andRecords34: 143-146. Biblio k poetry in languat


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