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National Forest Programme Country Case Vietnam. Workshop Enhancing the NFP process of Kenya Nairobi, 28 – 30 June 2005. Some basic facts. Land area 331.123 km 2 Population 80.9 million, growth rate 1,2%, density 244 / km 2 , 75% in rural areas, 25 million depending directly on forest

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National Forest Programme Country Case Vietnam

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National Forest Programme Country Case Vietnam


Enhancing the NFP process of Kenya

Nairobi, 28 – 30 June 2005

Some basic facts

  • Land area 331.123 km2

  • Population 80.9 million, growth rate 1,2%, density 244 / km2, 75% in rural areas, 25 million depending directly on forest

  • Forest area 12 million ha (2004 est.)

  • Demand for forest products: about 4 million m3 p.a. roundwood, >30 million m3 p.a. fuelwood, bamboo, rattan, other products

  • Logging quota in natural forest 200.000 m3 p.a. (2004)

  • Contribution of forest sector to GDP about 1%

  • Export value forest sector: >1 bln USD (2004) of a total export value of 20 bln

  • 80% of processed timber imported

  • Employment (est.) 250.000 in processing industry, many more in forest production

Some history and milestones

  • 1975 end of Vietnam War, reunification of North and South

  • Since December 1986 Doi Moi Policy: opening up, shift from subsidy-based, centrally planned control towards market economy

  • 1988 Land Law (revised in 1993, 1998): boost in agricultural production

  • 1991 Forest Protection and Development Law

  • 1992 new Constitution, further emphasis on renovation

  • 1992 VFAP concluded, emerging donor support

  • 1993 revised Land Law: forest land allocation programme started

  • 1993 New forest policy orientation, “Regreening“ Programme 327

  • 1997 Five Million Hectare Reforestation Programme launched

  • 1999 Donor-Government Partnership for the 5MHRP launched

  • 2001 Forest Sector Development Strategy FSDS 2001-2010

  • 2001 MoA for Forest Sector Support Programme FSSP & Partnership

  • 2003 revised Land Law allows land allocation to communities

  • 2004 new Forest Law allows community-based forest management

How did that affect forest area?

Vietnam’s National Forest Programme … what is it?

  • Five Million Hectare Reforestation Programme (5MHRP)

  • National Forest Development Strategy (2001-2010)

  • The new National Forest Strategy (2006-2020)

  • Law on Forest Protection and Development 2004

  • Policy reforms

Vietnam's NFP?

let’s have a look …

at Vietnam’s major programme in the forest sector:The Five Million Hectare Reforestation Programme

The Five Million Hectare Reforestation Programme – Main objectives


  • Establishing and restoring 2 million ha of protection forests and 3 million ha of production forests to increase the forest cover to 43% by 2010, to ensure environmental protection requirements


  • Ensuring the forest products supply for development (every year 15 million m3 of timber and 20 million steres of fuel wood), thereby reducing the pressure on natural forests


  • Poverty alleviation, hunger eradication and development of rural mountainous areas, by creating forestry-related employment for 2 million people, increasing the income of people living in forest areas

The Five Million Hectare Reforestation Programme – Main strategies

  • Encourage household forestry and community forestry, mainly by land allocation

  • Provide financial support for management of protection forests and special use forests, and favourable loans for development of production forests

  • Adopt benefit-sharing policies to encourage people in implementation of the programme

  • Strengthen capacities through training and extension activities

  • Encourage joint-ventures and foreign investment in plantation forest by tax benefits and land use rights, especially in remote areas

  • Provide technical support and conduct technology transfer, with state-owned forest enterprises as the main forces

The Five Million Hectare Reforestation Programme – achievements/constraints

  • 2 million ha of improved forest management or rehabilitation, mainly in protection and special use forests, but performance for production forests lagging behind

  • Plantation development, but technical problems and partly poor performance

  • Policy reforms, but slow implementation

  • Involvement of local people in forest management, but land allocation still slow, extension services weak

  • Private entrepreneurship emerging, but still dominance of State Enterprises in forest sector

What about the nfp principles …

How are they being addressed in the Vietnamese context ?

National sovereignty and country leadership

… in the Vietnamese context:

High Government commitment and donor coordination

  • launching of 5MHRP by National Assembly, PM decision, endorsed by 9th Party Congress

  • Donor coordination through FSSP: all contributions refer to the 5MHRP

Consistency with national policy and international commitments

… in the Vietnamese context:

policy reforms and integration of international commitments

  • Reference to sustainable development processes, MDGs and environmental conventions (CBD NBSAP, UNCCD NAP refer to forest sector and 5MHRP)

    … but

  • no assessment of IPF/IFF proposals for action yet

  • Policy reforms slow

Integration with the sustainable development strategies of the country

… in the Vietnamese context:

Forests part of national SD Strategy

  • Forest sector priority area of national SD Strategy (Agenda 21)

  • Integration of forest sector strategies into Socio-economic Development Plan (2006-2010)

    … but

  • allocation of budget an issue

Partnership and participation, participatory mechanisms in which all interested parties are involved

… in the Vietnamese context:

Stakeholder involvement

  • Involvement of local people

  • Mobilisation of all forces

  • Government-Donor partnership for the 5MHRP

    … but not all are equal…

  • Still dominance of State over private sector

  • Representation of stakeholders groups an issue

Holistic and intersectoral approaches

… in the Vietnamese context:

Linkage to other programmes and strategies

  • 5MHRP considered one of the key programmes for poverty alleviation in rural areas

  • 5MHRP linked to other sectors

  • Forests important in National Environment Strategy

    … but

  • industry / infrastructure development is a priority

Decentralisation and empowerment of regional and local government structures

… in the Vietnamese context:

bottom-up & top-down

  • Decentralisation process on-going, decentralised forest strategies (Province, district)

    … but

  • Devolution of budget and decision-making still slow

  • Forest management still centrally controlled (planning, logging quota)

  • Provinces “deviate” from SFM, have their own priorities

Consistency with the constitutional and legal frameworks of each country

… in the Vietnamese context:

Policy and institutional reform:

  • New Land Law, Forest Law

  • changes of constitution ?

  • Policy development by testing on the ground

    … but

  • implementation mechanisms, guidelines still to be developed

  • Slow reform of State Forest Enterprises

Recognition and respect for customary and traditional rights

… in the Vietnamese context:

dealing with ethnic minorities

  • Community forestry and recognition of ethnic minorities

    … but in practice

  • Dominance of Kinh

  • Resettlement schemes

  • Land conflicts

  • customary rights often not compatible with modern legal practices and concepts

Secure land and forest tenure arrangements

… in the Vietnamese context:

land allocation

  • Long term user rights (50 years, renewable)

  • land use planning combined with land allocation

  • Land Use Certificates can be inherited, sold, mortgaged, …

    … but

  • LA process slow, still not concluded for all forest areas

Establishment of effective co-ordination mechanisms and conflict-resolution schemes

… in the Vietnamese context:

institutional structures for the 5MHRP and the FSSP & P

  • 5MHRP Steering Committee, linkage with other sectors

  • Reporting to highest level (NA)

  • FSSP & P coordination mechanisms

  • Conflict resolution in the field

    … but

  • No adequate representation of all stakeholders

  • Transparency often lacking

Forest sector – recent trends

Forest cover has increased, however, there is still continued degradation of natural forests

Main causes:

  • Forest land encroachment

  • Conversion of forest to agricultural land

  • Unsustainable and illegal harvesting (>50%)

  • Infrastructure development

  • Forest fires

    Forest processing industry with emerging potential, boosting exports, but lack of raw material and high import prices, need to invest in up-to-date equipment and capacity building

Forest sector – recent trends

  • FSSP & Partnership developing, aiming at convergence of donor support and Government funding

  • Trust Fund for Forests TFF established

  • Revision of Programme 661 and National Forest Development Strategy 2001-2010

    • update with recent policy changes

    • harmonise with other strategies, e.g. Poverty Alleviation Strategy (CPRGS) Public Administration Reform (PAR), decentralisation

    • formulation of National Forest Strategy (2006-2020)

  • Development of financing instruments:

    • medium-term financial frameworks and medium-term expenditure frameworks for the Ministry

    • forest sector financing study

  • Elaboration of Forest Monitoring and Information System FOMIS

Thank you

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