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THE COLD WAR – a preface. Big Three meet at summits Stalin, Churchill, Roosevelt Tehran (11/1943) D- day, Concessions to Please Stalin . Yalta (2/1945) USSR would enter the Pacific Theatre , agreed on Partition of Germany, United Nations, and Free Elections.

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The cold war a preface
THE COLD WAR – a preface

  • Big Three meet at summits

    • Stalin, Churchill, Roosevelt

    • Tehran (11/1943)

      • D-day, Concessions to PleaseStalin.

    • Yalta (2/1945)

      • USSR would enter the Pacific Theatre, agreed on Partition of Germany,United Nations, and Free Elections.

    • Potsdam (w/Truman 7/1945)

      • Communist Eastern Europe


The cold war
The Cold War

  • Post-war tensions in Europe

    • Troubles with Stalin

      • During the war

      • No free elections after war

      • Puppet governments

      • Soviet Bloc(Czech, Poland, Hungary, etc)


The iron curtain
The Iron Curtain

  • After Potsdam, Stalin cuts off contact w/ West

    • Soviet Bloc (Satellites) countries act as buffer

    • Soviet troops Occupy Central and Eastern Europe

    • Churchill called the dividing line between the democratic and communist European countries the Iron Curtain


Containment
Containment

  • American Response

    • Foreign policy of containment

    • Stops spread of communism

    • Truman Doctrine

      • Military and economic aid to Greece and Turkey


Marshall plan
Marshall Plan

  • $13 billion in Economic assistance to European countries

  • Stalin desperate to get Berlin

    • Berlin Blockade=> Berlin Airlift 200,000 Flights in 1 year

      • Example of Conflict between West and USSR

  • Stalin sets up the German Democratic Republic

  • The Brain Drain forces USSR to set up the Berlin Wall in 1961


New alliances
New Alliances

  • NATO- April 1949

    • U.S., Canada, W. Europe

    • United Military Defense

    • “Massive Retaliation” “You mess w/ 1, you mess with all…and we have bigger bombs (Nukes)”


Soviet response
Soviet Response

  • Warsaw Pact 1955

    • In Response to FRG Joining NATO

    • U.S.S.R.,7 Satellite Countries

    • Prevent Invasion of the Soviet Union



Nuclear arms race
Nuclear Arms Race

  • US Uses A-Bomb in 1945

    • Soviets test A-bomb in 1949

    • Each side wants more than the other.

    • Brinkmanship-Two Countries going to the edge of War

    • M.A.D-Mutual Assured Destruction


Space race
SPACE RACE

  • A dual purpose

    • ICBM (Intercontinental Ballistic Missle)

  • Sputnik (1957)

  • Yuri Gargarin (1961)-Soviet Hero

  • Soviet victories embarrassed the U.S.


Changes in leadership
Changes in Leadership

  • Khrushchev & De-Stalinization

  • Kennedy & inexperience

  • New conflict

    • Bay of Pigs-Failed Invasion of Cuba

    • Cuban Missile Crisis- 13 Day stand off between the USSR and the US

      • U.S. Set up blockade of Cuba (Quarantine)

      • Agreed to remove ICBM’s from Turkey


  • COMMUNISM SPREADS EAST

  • After WWII China resumes its Civil War

  • The People’s Liberation Army vs. the Kuomintang

  • Communist vs. Nationalist


  • Chiang Kai Shekvs Mao Zedong

  • The Communists overtake the Nationalists in 1949.

  • They even have peasant support

  • The People’s Republic of China is born.


  • Mao aligns himself with Stalin.

  • Inspired to implement THE GREAT LEAP FORWARD in 1958

  • GLF- Industrialization and Communal Farming => Famine

  • Great Leap Forward leads to 30 Million Deaths


After the Great Leap Forward

-Mao loses face and Power in the CCP

-Launches the Cultural Revolution

-Goal was to eliminate all forms of Capitalism

-Make the working class equal


During the Cultural Revolution in ‘66

-Students leave School to Form “Red Guard”

-Youth movement to further Mao’s C.R.

-arrested “counter revolutionaries”

-Disbanded in ‘68


Post WWII, Soviets Occupied North of 38th

Parallel

Post WWII, U.S. Occupied South of 38th

Parallel


Original Goal Was to Unite Korea

But Cold War Tensions between the U.S.

And the Soviets made that impossible.


NORTH KOREA

BECOMES COMMUNIST


N. Korea (Financed by Stalin)

With 90,000 troops invade South

Korea in 1950


The U.S. Responds by leading a UN

Military Force to push back the invasion


MacArthur leads UN Forces

In Amphibious attack at the

Port of Inchon


They Push the North to the Yula River

…Victory?


180,000 Chinese Troops

Save N. Korea


Stalemate at the 38th Parallel…

Truman happy to call for a Cease Fire


VIETNAM

  • French try to regain Colonial Control

  • Hours after Japan’s Surrender..

    • Ho Chi Minh proclaimed the independent Democratic Republic of Vietnam

    • French defeated at Diem BienPhu

  • Ho Chi Minh

    • Northern Vietnam

    • Communist

    • Fought Indochina War against French


  • US Response to French Defeat

    • Geneva Conference 1954

      • Vietnam is Divided into North & South

      • South Vietnam created

      • U.S. Supports South Vietnamese Regime

      • U.S. Had try to stop the Domino effect

    • Southern Regime felt like U.S. Colonialism

      • Vietminh established National Liberation Front

      • Vietcong

      • South Vietnamese travel North to receive training


    Escalation

    • Gulf of Tonkin Incident

    • “Attack” on U.S. Ship

    • Ugly War

    • Guerilla Warfare

    • Lack of Support back Home

    • Mai Lai Massacre

      • US General Murders Vietnamese villagers

    • Carpet Bombing, Agent Orange, and Napalm


    Vietnamization

    • Try to help train the South Vietnamese

    • To take control of the situation

    • U.S. Troops could withdrawl

    • Policy of Containment Failed

    • Vietcong take over in ‘77


    Vietnam
    Vietnam

    • French colony wants independ. following WWII

    • Ho Chi Minh

      • Northern Vietnam

      • Communist

      • Fought Indochina War against French

    • U.S. tries to stop domino by “advising” France


    Vietnam continued
    VietnamContinued

    • Country of South Vietnam created

      • Following defeat of France at Diem Bien Phu

    • American “Advisors” become soldiers

      • Gulf of Tonkin incident

    • An ugly war

      • Vietcong, Mai Lai Massacre

      • Agent Orange, Napalm, Saturation bombing

    • Escalation (Pres. Johnson) followed by Vietnamization (Pres. Nixon)



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