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MITOSIS. What is the cell cycle?. Growth And Division. What is Mitosis?. Nuclear Division. What is Chromatin ?. ( Thin Chroma tin ) Stretched out, unwound DNA Looks like spaghetti Not visible under microscope. What is a Chromosome?.

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Presentation Transcript
slide2

What is the cell cycle?

Growth

And

Division

slide3

What is Mitosis?

Nuclear Division

slide4

What is Chromatin?

(Thin Chromatin)

Stretched out, unwound DNA

Looks like spaghetti

Not visible under microscope

slide5

What is a Chromosome?

Coiled up (condensed) version of chromatin; easier for moving DNA

(Looks like a slinky)

slide7

What is the Centromere?

Holds Sister Chromatids together

Where spindle fibers grab chromosome

(Think: Centro = center mere = middle)

slide8

What is the Sister Chromatid?

Two identical strands of a chromosome

slide10

Name the phases of the

Cell Cycle…

G1 Phase

S Phase

G2 Phase

M Phase

slide11

What happens in the G1 Phase?

Growth Phase

When cell gets bigger and makes lots of proteins

1st part of Interphase

slide12

What happens in the S Phase?

“Synthesis” Phase

Makes a copy of the DNA

Single strand →Double strand

2nd part of Interphase

slide13

What happens in the G2 Phase?

“Growth 2” Phase

Cell is getting ready to divide

Getting organelles and proteins

(Like going to grocery store to get the food to prepare dinner)

3rd part of Interphase

slide14

What happens in the M Phase?

“Cell Division”

Mitosis and Cytokinesis

slide15

What is the“Cell Growth and Protein Synthesis” stage that is the

longest phase of the Cell Cycle?

(NOT part of Mitosis)

Includes: G1, S, G2

Interphase

slide18

Name the phases of Mitosis(Nuclear division)

“The Professional MetAna on the Telophone.”

Prophase

Metaphase PMAT

Anaphase

Telophase

slide19

Name each phase of Mitosis (not in correct order)

Metaphase

Anaphase

Telophase

Prophase

slide20

What happens in Prophase?

“Prepare”

Longest phase of Mitosis!!!

  • Chromosomes coil up to make easy to move
  • Nuclear envelope (membrane) dissolves
  • Centrioles make spindle fibers

Spindle fibers (muscles of chromosome) form to help move

slide21

What happens in Metaphase?

“Middle”

Chromosomes are lined up in the middle of the cell

Spindle fibers are attached and centrioles go to the poles

slide22

What happens in Anaphase?

“Apart”

Chromosomes get pulled apart by spindle fibers

slide23

What happens in Telophase?

“The End” or “Tidy Up”

Uncoiling of chromosomes

Nuclear envelope reforms

Spindle fibers go “bye-bye”

slide24

What is Cell Cytoplasm & Membrane Division called?

This is the next stage after mitosis.

Actual cell division into two cells dividing into two daughter cells

Cytokenesis

Hint: cytoplasm

gets Kut

slide25

Cytokenesis in Animal Cells

What structure appears?

slide26

Cytokenesis in Plant Cells

What structure appears?

Creates a CELL PLATE

(Think: Hard cell wall is like a hard plate)

slide30

Why do normal cells stop growing when they touch other cells or reach the sides of a petri dish?

Contact with other cells or the sides of the dish signal to the cell to stop growing.

This happens when you cut your finger. The cells grow rapidly to fill in the cut. When the cells touch, they go back to normal cell cycle.

slide32

What are internal regulators and external regulators?

Internal regulators are proteins that respond to events inside the cell .

External regulators are proteins that respond to events outside the cell.

slide35

What are stem cells?

Cells that have not differentiated yet.

slide36

When a cell becomes larger, which increases faster:

Volume or Surface Area?

VOLUME

The bigger the cell gets the less efficient the cell is at doing its job (function) in the body.

slide37

What are diploid cells?

What are haploid cells?

2 pairs of chromosomes

Somatic Cells = 23 pairs

1 set of chromosomes

Sex Cells = 23 single chromosomes

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