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MITOSIS. What is the cell cycle?. Growth And Division. What is Mitosis?. Nuclear Division. What is Chromatin ?. ( Thin Chroma tin ) Stretched out, unwound DNA Looks like spaghetti Not visible under microscope. What is a Chromosome?.

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Presentation Transcript

What is the cell cycle?

Growth

And

Division


What is Mitosis?

Nuclear Division


What is Chromatin?

(Thin Chromatin)

Stretched out, unwound DNA

Looks like spaghetti

Not visible under microscope


What is a Chromosome?

Coiled up (condensed) version of chromatin; easier for moving DNA

(Looks like a slinky)


How many pairs of chromosomes do normal human cells have?

Pairs


What is the Centromere?

Holds Sister Chromatids together

Where spindle fibers grab chromosome

(Think: Centro = center mere = middle)


What is the Sister Chromatid?

Two identical strands of a chromosome



Name the phases of the

Cell Cycle…

G1 Phase

S Phase

G2 Phase

M Phase


What happens in the G1 Phase?

Growth Phase

When cell gets bigger and makes lots of proteins

1st part of Interphase


What happens in the S Phase?

“Synthesis” Phase

Makes a copy of the DNA

Single strand →Double strand

2nd part of Interphase


What happens in the G2 Phase?

“Growth 2” Phase

Cell is getting ready to divide

Getting organelles and proteins

(Like going to grocery store to get the food to prepare dinner)

3rd part of Interphase


What happens in the M Phase?

“Cell Division”

Mitosis and Cytokinesis


What is the“Cell Growth and Protein Synthesis” stage that is the

longest phase of the Cell Cycle?

(NOT part of Mitosis)

Includes: G1, S, G2

Interphase




Name the phases of Mitosis(Nuclear division)

“The Professional MetAna on the Telophone.”

Prophase

Metaphase PMAT

Anaphase

Telophase


Name each phase of Mitosis (not in correct order)

Metaphase

Anaphase

Telophase

Prophase


What happens in Prophase?

“Prepare”

Longest phase of Mitosis!!!

  • Chromosomes coil up to make easy to move

  • Nuclear envelope (membrane) dissolves

  • Centrioles make spindle fibers

    Spindle fibers (muscles of chromosome) form to help move


What happens in Metaphase?

“Middle”

Chromosomes are lined up in the middle of the cell

Spindle fibers are attached and centrioles go to the poles


What happens in Anaphase?

“Apart”

Chromosomes get pulled apart by spindle fibers


What happens in Telophase?

“The End” or “Tidy Up”

Uncoiling of chromosomes

Nuclear envelope reforms

Spindle fibers go “bye-bye”


What is Cell Cytoplasm & Membrane Division called?

This is the next stage after mitosis.

Actual cell division into two cells dividing into two daughter cells

Cytokenesis

Hint: cytoplasm

gets Kut


Cytokenesis in Animal Cells

What structure appears?


Cytokenesis in Plant Cells

What structure appears?

Creates a CELL PLATE

(Think: Hard cell wall is like a hard plate)


What are the twonew identical cells made in cell division called?

Daughter Cells




Why do normal cells stop growing when they touch other cells or reach the sides of a petri dish?

Contact with other cells or the sides of the dish signal to the cell to stop growing.

This happens when you cut your finger. The cells grow rapidly to fill in the cut. When the cells touch, they go back to normal cell cycle.


What signals a cell to start the cell cycle? or reach the sides of a

Cyclins


What are internal regulators and external regulators? or reach the sides of a

Internal regulators are proteins that respond to events inside the cell .

External regulators are proteins that respond to events outside the cell.



What is it called when a cell grows and becomes control their growth?specialized?

Differentiation


What are stem cells? control their growth?

Cells that have not differentiated yet.


When a cell becomes larger, which increases faster: control their growth?

Volume or Surface Area?

VOLUME

The bigger the cell gets the less efficient the cell is at doing its job (function) in the body.


What are control their growth?diploid cells?

What are haploid cells?

2 pairs of chromosomes

Somatic Cells = 23 pairs

1 set of chromosomes

Sex Cells = 23 single chromosomes


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