QUALITY CONTROL  SIGNIFICANCE OF TESTS
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QUALITY CONTROL SIGNIFICANCE OF TESTS. AWARENESS ABOUT HANDLING OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS. AT A GLANCE. Introduction. PETROLEUM PRODUCTS FUEL OILS LUBRICATING OILS LUBRICATING GREASES. PETROLEUM PRODUCTS TESTS AND SIGNIFICANCE

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Quality control significance of tests

QUALITY CONTROL SIGNIFICANCE OF TESTS


Quality control significance of tests

AWARENESS ABOUT HANDLING OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS.

AT A GLANCE


Quality control significance of tests

Introduction

  • PETROLEUM PRODUCTS

  • FUEL OILS

  • LUBRICATING OILS

  • LUBRICATING GREASES


Quality control significance of tests

PETROLEUM PRODUCTS

TESTS AND SIGNIFICANCE

THE MAJOR FUNCTION OF LUBRICATING OIL IS REDUCTION OF FRICTION & WEAR BY SEPARATION OF SURFACES

LUBRICATING OILS ALSO ACT AS A CARRIER FOR ADDITIVES

ADVANCEMENT IN LUBRICATION TECHNOLOGY

GOOD QUALITY OF BASE OILS HAVE MORE RESPONSE TO ADDITIVES

PROPERLY FORMULATED LUBRICATNS LAST LONGER AND GENERATE LESS WASTE

SYSTEMATIC MANAGEMENT & TRANSFER OF KNOWLEDGE IS KEY TO SUCCESS


Quality control significance of tests

PETROLEUM PRODUCTS

TESTS AND SIGNIFICANCEcontd.

IT IS POSSIBLE TO MAKE LUBRICANTS SAFE FOR PEOPLE & ENVIRONMENT

CLOSE RELATIONSHIP WITH OEM’S

OEM’S ARE BECOMING INCREASINGLY RECEPTIVE BECAUSE IT IS THEIR OBJECTIVE OF GIVING BETTER PERFORMANCE

TO GENERATE QUALITY AWARENESS IN THE USER COMMUNITY THROUGH PROPER CUSTOMER EDUCATION

CHALLENGE -TO CONVINCE THE PUBLIC TO PAY MORE FOR QUALITY PRODUCTS


Quality control significance of tests

ASSESSMENT OF QUALITY

vADOPTION OF NEW FORMULATION TECHNOLOGY

vCONSTANT REVIEW OF TEST METHODS

vINSTRUMENTAL TECHNIQUES

vPRODUCT QUALITY TAILOR MADE FOR CUSTOMERS

vTRADITIONAL TEST METHODS ARE SUPPLIMENTED BY MODERN INSTRUMENTAL TECHNIQUES

vTEST MODULES FOR PERFORMANCE TESTS AND BENCH TESTS

vTEST RIGS AND ENGINE TESTING

TO SATISFY CUSTOMERS FOR ENERGY SAVING, POWER REDUCTION, TO REDUCE MACHINERY DOWN TIME, SAFETY AND HEALTH ASPECTS ARE ALSO BEING CONSIDERED WHILE ASSESSING THE QUALITY OF PRODUCTS.


Petroleum products

PETROLEUM PRODUCTS

TESTS & SIGNIFICANCE


Quality control significance of tests

TESTS ON PETROLEUM PRODUCTS

CAN BE BROADLY CLASSIFIED AS :

  • PHYSICAL TESTS

  • CHEMICAL TESTS

  • PERFORMANCE - BASED TESTS


A physical tests

A. PHYSICAL TESTS

  • APPEARANCE

  • ANILINE POINT

  • ASH CONTENT

  • COLOUR

  • COPPER STRIP CORROSION

  • DENSITY

  • DISTILLATION

  • FLASH POINT

  • INSOLUBLES

  • POUR POINT

  • RESIDUE ON EVAPORATION

  • VISCOSITY

  • VISCOSITY INDEX

  • WATER CONTENT


B chemicals tests

B. CHEMICALS TESTS

NEUTRALIZATION NO : TOTAL ACID NUMBER

STRONG ACID NUMBER

TOTAL BASE NO.

STRONG BASE NO.

LEAD,SULPHUR,BENZENE CONTENT

METAL CONTENT : Ca, Ba, Zn etc


C performance based tests

C. PERFORMANCE BASED TESTS

  • OXIDATION STABILITY

  • EXTREME PRESSURE CHARACTERISTICS

  • LEAKAGE TENDENCY

  • WATER WASHOUT PROPERTIES

  • RUST PROTECTION

  • FOAMING CHARACTERISTICS

  • AIR RELEASE PROPERTY

  • KNOCK RATING


Physical tests appearance

PHYSICAL TESTSAPPEARANCE

APPEARANCE : VISUAL OBSERVATION

BRIGHT & CLEAR : GOOD PRODUCT, FREE FROM CONTAMINATION

HAZY/CLOUDY : PRESENCE OF SEDIMENT, WATER AND/OR WAX


Quality control significance of tests

ANILINE POINT

MINIMUM TEMPERATURE AT WHICH ANILINE AND OIL IN EQUAL QUANTITY ARE MISCIBLE.

IT IS USEFUL IN THE CHARACTERISATION OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS.

IT INCREASES WITH INCREASE IN PARAFFIN CONTENT

IT GIVES THE IDEA OF COMPOSITION OF PETROLEUM CARBON RESIDUE.


Quality control significance of tests

ASH CONTENT

METALLIC DEPOSITS FORMED IN THE COMBUSTION CHAMBER & OTHER ENGINE PARTS DURING THE HIGH TEMPERATURE OPERATION.


Physical tests ash content

PHYSICAL TESTSASH CONTENT

ASH CONTENT : ASTM D 482/874,IP 4/163,IS 1448 P:4

EQUIPMENT :CRUCIBLE

ANALYTICAL BALANCE MUFFLE FURNACE

BURNER

ASH IS NON COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL IN PETROLEUM PRODUCT

CONTRIBUTED BY1) SOLID PARTICLES

2) OIL OR WATER

SOLUBLE METALLIC COMPOUNDS

…….CONTD


Quality control significance of tests

PHYSICAL TESTSASH CONTENT

ASH FROM FUELS: AFFECTS FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS, INDUCES BOILER CORROSION,

ATTACKS REFRACTORY LINING

OILS: INDICATES PRESENCE OF

OIL SOLUBLE METALLIC

COMPOUNDS.

SULPHATED ASH : BASIC TOOL FOR MFG.

QUALITY CONTROL

…….CONTD


Quality control significance of tests

PHYSICAL TESTSASH CONTENT

LOWER : LESSER ADDITION OF ADDITIVES,

ADMIXTURE OF BASE OIL.

HIGHER: INCREASED ADDITIVE DOSAGE,

ADMIXTURE WITH OILS OF

HIGHER ADDITIVE CONCENTRATION.


Quality control significance of tests

COLOUR

TEST IS USED FOR MANUFACTURING CONTROL PURPOSES. IT IS IMPORTANT SINCE COLOUR IS READILY OBSERVED BY CUSTOMER.


Quality control significance of tests

PROPERTIES OF FUELS AND LUBRICANTS

  • COLOUR

  • USED FOR MANUFACTURING CONTROL PURPOSE.

  • READILY OBSERVED BY THE CUSTOMER.

  • A VARIATION OUTSIDE THE ESTABLISHED RANGE INDICATES CONTAMINATION/ADULTERATION.


Quality control significance of tests

PHYSICAL TESTSCOLOUR

COLOUR :

1. SAYBOLT: ASTM D 156 / IS 1448 P :14

2. ASTM: ASTM D1500 / IP 196 / IS 1448 P :12

EQUIPMENT :

SAYBOLT CHROMOMETER ,ASTM COLORIMETER

NO DIRECT SIGNIFICANCE IN QUALITY :

ENSURES PRODUCT UNIFORMITY

APPRECIABLE CHANGE FROM NORMAL

INDICATES CONTAMINATION

PETROL COLOUR INDICATIVE OF PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION.


Quality control significance of tests

COPPER STRIP CORROSION

A QUALITATIVE MEASURE OF THE TENDENCY OF A PETROLEUM PRODUCT TO CORRODE PURE COPPER.


Quality control significance of tests

PHYSICAL TESTSCORROSION

COPPER STRIP COROSSION : ASTM D 130 / IP 156 /

IS 1448 P:15

EQUIPMENT : WATER BATH - THERMOSTATICALLY

CONTROLLED.

STD. COPPER STRIP,TEST TUBES, POLISHING MATERIAL,ASTM STANDARD

TEST INDICATES PRESENCE OF CORROSIVE SULPHUR IN PETROLEUM PRODUCTS

CAUSES: IMPROPER REFINING

IMPROPER STORAGE CONDITIONS

WATER BOTTOMS & PRESENCE OF

SULPHIDES INDUCE CORROSION.

…..CONTD.


Quality control significance of tests

PHYSICAL TESTSCORROSION

ATTACKS FUEL SYSTEM & ALL

COPPER/COPPER BEARING COMPONENTS

“POSITIVE” TEST INDICATES PROBABLE

ADMIXTURE OF ACTIVE SULPHUR BASED

CUTTING OIL.


Quality control significance of tests

DENSITY

MASS/VOLUME

DENSITY PROVIDES CHECK ON UNIFORMITY OF SHIPMENT.


Quality control significance of tests

PHYSICAL TESTSDENSITY

DENSITY : ASTM D 1298 / IP-160 / IS 1448 P:32

EQUIPMENT : HYDROMETER, GLASS JAR, THERMOMETER, IP-64C/ASTM 12C

HELPS TO COMPUTE WEIGHT - VOLUME RELATIONSHIP

ASSISTS IN DETECTING CONTAMINATION IN COMPARISON TO PARENT FIGURE IN FUELS.

SERVES AS BASIC GUIDE FOR PRODUCT MOVEMENT.

….CONTD.


Quality control significance of tests

PHYSICAL TESTSDENSITY

FOR OILS :

LOWER VALUE :FUEL OIL DILUTION, ADMIXTURE

OF LOW DENSITY PRODUCT.

HIGHER VALUE :OXIDATION, INSOLUBLES, WATER,MIXTURES OF HIGH DENSITY PRODUCT.

PRECAUTIONS :1.HYDROMETER CALIBRATION

MUST BE AT 15°C

2. SHIFTING OF GRADUATED SCALE3. BREAK IN THERMOMETER THREAD


Quality control significance of tests

SPECIFIC GRAVITY

  • RATIO OF A WEIGHT OF A GIVEN VOLUME OF MATERIAL TO THE WEIGHT OF THE SAME VOLUME OF WATER.


Quality control significance of tests

API GRAVITY

API GRAVITY, DEGREE = 141.5 131.5

SP.GR. @15.5/15.5OC

CO-EFFICIENT OF THERMAL EXPANSION INDICATES

CHANGE OF DENSITY WITH TEMPERATURE.


Quality control significance of tests

DISTILLATION

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF DISTILLATION RESULTS IS BASED ON CLOSE RELATIONSHIP TO VOLATILITY


Quality control significance of tests

VOLATILITY

  • THE TENDENCY OF A LIQUID OR LIQUIFIED GAS TO VAPOURISE IS CALLED IT’S VOLATILITY.

  • IT HAS IMPORTANCE DURING COMBUSTION.

  • IT KEEPS THE LIQUID IN GASEOUS STATE.

  • FOR VAPOURIZATION FLASH POINT, FIRE POINT, VAPOUR PRESSURE & EVAPORATION ARE ESSENTIAL.


Quality control significance of tests

DISTILLATION TEMPERATURES

INITIAL BOILING POINT (IBP)

THE TEMPERATURE AT WHICH THE FIRST DROP OF DISTILLATE IS COLLECTED IN THE MEASURING CYLINDER.

END POINT OR FINAL BOILING POINT (FBP)

THE HIGHEST TEMPERATURE RECORDED DURING THE DISTILLATION PROCESS.

DRY POINT

THE TEMPERATURE AT WHICH THE LAST DROP EVAPOURATES AND THE DISTILLATION FLASK BECOMES DRY DURING THE DISTILLATION PROCESS.


Quality control significance of tests

DISTILLATION TEMPERATURE (continued)

RECOVERY

THE TOTAL VOLUME OF DISTILLATE RECOVERED IN THE CYLINDER.

RESIDUE

MATERIAL REMAINED IN THE FLASK AFTER DISTILLATION. IF RESIDUE IS HIGH IT GIVES THE INDICATION OF IMPURITY.


Quality control significance of tests

PHYSICAL TESTSDISTILLATION

DISTILLATION : ASTM D 86/IP-123 / IS 1448 : P18

EQUIPMENT : FRONT VIEW DISTILLATION APPARATUS, STD. THERMOMETER ,

DISTILLATION FLASK,MEASURING

CYLINDER (100 ML)

CONTROLS VOLATILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF

FUELS.

CONTRIBUTES TO : EASE OF STARTING WARM UP

AND UNIFORM DISTRIBUTION OF

FUEL.

…..CONTD.


Quality control significance of tests

PHYSICAL TESTSDISTILLATION

LIMITS : UNWARRANTED HEAVY ENDS

ARRESTS: EXHAUST SMOKING - ENGINE DEPOSITS

FUEL DILUTION - IMPROPER MIXTURE

DISTRIBUTION TO CYLINDER.

DISTILLATION TEST HELPS DETECTION OF

PETROL ADULTERATION WITH SKO


Quality control significance of tests

FLASH POINT

IMPORTANT INDICATION OF FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARD


Quality control significance of tests

PHYSICAL TESTSFLASH POINT

FLASH POINT :

1. ABEL, CLOSED CUP:IP 170 / IS 1448 P:32

2. PENSKY MARTEN’S : ASTM D 93/IP 34/IS1448 CLOSED CUP P :21

3.CLEVELAND OPEN: ASTM D 92/ IP 36 /

CUP IS-1448 P 69

EQUIPMENT : ABEL FLASH TESTER - FUELS

UPTO 70°C

PM FLASH TESTER - FUELS & OILS

COC FLASH TESTER - OILS

……CONTD.


Quality control significance of tests

PHYSICAL TESTSFLASH POINT

FLASH POINT CONTROLS FLAMMABILITY PROPERTY OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS

INDICATES DEGREE OF SAFETY IN STORAGE, TRANSPORTATION AND USE.

IN USED CRANKCASE OILS, LOWER FLASH INDICATES FUEL DILUTION.

BASIC CRITICAL TEST FOR FUEL DELIVERIES.


Quality control significance of tests

FLASH & FIRE POINT

  • IT IS THE TEMPERATURE TO WHICH THE OIL MUST BE HEATED UNDER SPECIFIED TEST CONDITIONS TO GIVE OFF SUFFICIENT VAPOURS TO FORM A MIXTURE WHICH WILL IGNITE IN THE PRESENCE OF A SOURCE OF IGNITION

  • FLASH POINT TEST GIVES AN INDICATION OF PRESENCE OF VOLATILE COMPONENTS IN AN OIL.

  • FIRE POINT IS THE TEMPERATURE AT WHICH THE PRODUCT STARTS BURNING CONTINUOUSLY

  • IT GIVES AN INDICATION OF FIRE HAZARD.

    FOR FUELS,THE DIFFERENCE IS VERY SMALL


Quality control significance of tests

INSOLUBLES

CONTAMINANTS FOUND IN USED OILS DUE TO DUST, WEAR PARTICLES AND OXIDATION PRODUCTS


Quality control significance of tests

PHYSICAL TESTSINSOLUBLES

INSOLUBES - ASTM D 893

EQUIPMENT : OIL CENTRIFUGE - CONE SHAPED 100 ML TUBES

ANALYTICAL BALANCE , AIR OVEN

THIS TEST IS BASICALLY FOR USED LUBRICATING OILS

HEXANE INSOLUBLE = CARBON + OXIDISED OIL + RESINS + SEDIMENTS

BENZENE INSOLUBES = CARBON + SEDIMENTS

ASH ON BENZENE INSOLUBES; SEDIMENTS,

SILICA,WEAR METAL PARTICLES.

ESSENTIAL TOOL FOR JUDGING USED OIL QUALITY.


Quality control significance of tests

POUR POINT

AN INDICATOR OF THE ABILITY OF OIL TO FLOW UNDER COLD OPERATING CONDITIONS


Quality control significance of tests

CLOUD & POUR POINT

  • CLOUD POINT.

  • TEMPERATURE AT WHICH THE OIL BECOMES HAZY WHEN COOLED IN A SPECIFIED CONDITION.

  • IT HAS IMPORTANCE WHEN NARROW CLEARANCE MIGHT BE RESTRICTED BY ACCUMULATION OF SOLID MATERIAL EX-SUCTION LINE STRAINERS, SMALL SIZE OIL-FEED LINES OR FILTERS.


Quality control significance of tests

CLOUD & POUR POINT

  • POUR POINT IS THE LOWEST TEMPERATURE AT WHICH THE OIL WILL JUST FLOW UNDER SPECIFIC TEST CONDITIONS.

  • IT'S USE IS FOR LOW TEMPERATURE APPLICATION.

  • POUR POINT OF WAXY OILS CAN BE REDUCED BY POUR POINT DEPRESSANTS (PPD)

  • SIGNIFICANCE IN REFRIGERATION COMPRESSOR LUBRICANTS & AUTOMOTIVE ENGINE OILS.


Quality control significance of tests

PHYSICAL TESTSPOUR POINT

POUR POINT : ASTM D 97/ IP 15 /IS 1448 P :10

EQUIPMENT : CLOUD & POUR TEST CABINET , STD. THERMOMETER , POUR POINT JARS

PETROLEUM PRODUCTS ON COOLING SEPARATE WAX CRYSTALS. FIRST APPEARANCE OF WAX IS CLOUD POINT.

CONTINUED CHILLING INCREASES WAX PRECIPITATION AND ENDS IN MATRIX FORMATION.

THIS MATRIX OF WAX STRUCTURE ARRESTS OIL FLOW.

……CONTD.


Quality control significance of tests

PHYSICAL TESTSPOUR POINT

POUR POINT CONTROLS FLOW CHARACTERISTICS AND PUMPABILITY PROPERTY.

POUR DEPRESSANTS RETARD MATRIX FORMATION AND CONTRIBUTE TO LOWERING OF POUR POINT AND IMPROVEMENT IN FLOW PROPERTIES.


Quality control significance of tests

PHYSICAL TESTSRESIDUE ON EVAPORATION

RESIDUE ON EVAPORATION : ASTM D 381 / IP 131 / IS 1448 P:29

EQUIPMENT : EXISTENT GUM BATH WITH PRESSURE GAUGE & THERMOMETER , STD.GUM BEAKER, ANALYTICAL BALANCE,AIR OVEN.

TEST IS APPLICABLE TO FUELS & SOLVENTS.

ALL FUELS CONTAIN CERTAIN UNSATURATED HYDROCARBONS.

…..CONTD.


Quality control significance of tests

PHYSICAL TESTSRESIDUE ON EVAPORATION

THESE COMBINE WITH THEMSELVES AND WITH OXYGEN TO FORM NON-VOLATIE STICKY SUBSTANCE CALLED GUM WHICH GETS DEPOSITED ON ENGINE PARTS:

- CARBURETTER & INTAKE SYSTEM (INTAKE MANIFOLD,VALVE STEMS, VALVE SEATS ETC)

- RESTRICTS FLOW THROUGH CARBURETTER JETS, FLOAT STICKING AND IN EXTREME CASES VALVE STICKING.


Quality control significance of tests

VISCOSITY

VISCOSITY OF A FLUID IS A MEASURE OF ITS RESISTANCE TO FLOW.

VISCOSITY AND VISCOSITY VARIATION WITH TEMPERATURE ARE IMPORTANT FACTORS FOR ESTABLISHING PERFORMANCE STANDARD OF LUBE OILS


Quality control significance of tests

VISCOSITY

  • MEASURE OF FLOW CHARACTERISTICS.

  • VISCOSITY CHANGES WITH TEMPERATURE.

  • IT FORMS BY THE COHESION OF FORCE OF MOLECULES.

  • AS THE PRESSURE INCREASES VISCOSITY INCREASES.

  • VISCOSITY INCREASE IN USED OIL INDICATES THE OIL HAS OXIDISED.

  • VISCOSITY DECREASE USUALLY INDICATES FUEL DILUTION .


Quality control significance of tests

PHYSICAL TESTSVISCOSITY

VISCOSITY = ASTM D 445 / IP 71 / IS 1448,P:25

MEASUREMENT OF RESISTANCE TO FLOW.

EQUIPMENT : CONSTANT TEMPERATURE VISCOSITY

BATH ,CALIBRATED CAPILLARY GLASS

VISCOMETERS, STOP WATCH.

UNITS OF VISCOSITY : ABSOLUTE, CENTI-POISE,

KINEMATIC,CENTI-STOKES

RELATIONSHIP : CENTI-POISE=CENTI-STOKESXDENSITY

@ TEMPERATURE

LUBE OILS ARE CONTOLLED AT 40°C AS PER ISO VISCOSITY SYSTEM.

* VISCOSITY FORMS BASIS FOR SELECTION OF LUBRICANTS.

*VISCOSITY CHANGES REFLECT USED OIL CONDITION.


Quality control significance of tests

VISCOSITY INDEX

  • VISCOSITY OF PETROLEUM BASE OILS DECREASES WITH RISE IN TEMPERATURE.

  • INDICATES THE EFFECTS OF CHANGE OF TEMPERATURE ON THE VISCOSIY OF OIL.

  • STANDARD PARAFFINIC OILS HAVE VI=100.

  • STANDARD NAPHTHENIC OILS HAVE VI=0.

  • VI OF AN OIL IS OF IMPORTANCE IN IT’S APPLICATION WHERE AN APPRECIABLE CHANGE IN THE TEMPERATURE OF LUBE OIL COULD ADVERSELY AFFECT THE START-UP.


Quality control significance of tests

PHYSICAL TESTSVISCOSITY INDEX

VISCOSITY INDEX : ASTM D 2270 / IP 226 / IS-1448, P:56.

NUMERICAL EVALUATION OF THE PROPERTY OF RESISTANCE TO CHANGE IN VISCOSITY DUE TO CHANGE IN TEMPERATURE.

MEASUREMENT : VI = L - U X 100

L - H

VI CAN BE OBTAINED FROM READYMADE ASTM TABLES.

# HELPS IDENTIFICATION OF TYPE OF BASE STOCK

# CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OF OIL FOR WIDE OPERATING TEMPERATURE

# PRIME INDICATION OF HIGH QUALITY - BETTER OXIDATION RESISTANCE


Quality control significance of tests

PHYSICAL TESTSWATER

WATER CONTENT : ASTM D 95 / IP 74 / IS-1448,P:40

EQUIPMENT : DEAN & STARK WATER CONTENT APPARATUS ,HOT PLATE , BALANCE

TRACE MOISTURE IN OIL IS FOUND BY CRACKLE TEST

PETROLEUM PRODUCTS PICK UP WATER DURING STORAGE, HANDLING AND CONDENSATION FROM ATMOSPHERE. PRESENCE OF WATER IN USED OILS INDICATE PROBABLE LEAKAGE IN COOLING SYSTEM OR STEAM GLANDS IN TURBINE. WATER WHEN PRESENT FORMS EMULSION & SLUDGE , CLOGS SUCTION SCREEN, OIL COOLER & FILTERS.

WATER IS A DEADLY ENEMY FOR DETERGENT OILS.


Quality control significance of tests

RESEARCH OCTANE NUMBER

A MEASURE OF FULES ABILITY TO PREVENT DETONATION IN A SPARK IGNITION ENGINE


Quality control significance of tests

OCTANE NO...

  • AUTOMOTIVE GASOLINES ARE ESSENTIALLY BLENDS OF HYDROCARBONS DERIVED FROM PETROLEUM.

  • SELECTED ADDITIVES ARE ADDED TO IMPART SPECIFIC FEATURES.

  • GASOLINES ARE BLENDED TO SATISFY DIVERSE AUTOMOTIVE REQUIREMENTS.

  • ANTI-KNOCK RATING, DISTILLATION CHARECTERISTICS, VAPOUR PRESSURE, SULPHUR, OXIDATION STABILITY AND ANTI-CORROSION BEHAVIOUR ARE WELL BALANCED TO PROVIDE SATISFACTORY VEHICLE PERFORMANCE.


Quality control significance of tests

OCTANE NO...

PREMIUM 93 OCTANEREGULAR 87 OCTANE

  • IF ANTI-KNOCK RATING IS TOO LOW KNOCK OCCURS. KNOCK IS A HIGH PITCH METTALIC RAPPING NOISE.

  • KNOCK DEPENDS ON COMPLEX PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PHENOMENA; HIGHLY INTER-RELATED WITH ENGINE DESIGN AND OPERATING CONDITIONS.


Quality control significance of tests

OCTANE NO...

  • KNOCK IN AN ENGINE IS A FORM OF ABNORMAL COMBUSTION WHERE AIR/FUEL CHARGE IN THE CYLINDER IGNITES SPONTANEOUSLY IN A LOCALISED AREA INSTEAD OF BEING CONSUMED PROGRESSIVELY BY THE SPARK INITIATED FLAME FRONT.

  • KNOCKING COMBUSTION CAN DAMAGE THE ENGINE AND GIVE SERIOUS POWER LOSS IF ALLOWED TO PERSIST.


Quality control significance of tests

CHEMICAL TESTSNEUTRALISATION NUMBER

NEUTRALISATION NUMBER - BY

I) COLOUR - INDICATOR TITRATION ASTM D 974 /

IP 139 / IS 1448 P:2

II)POTENTIOMETRIC TITRATION -

ASTM D-664 / IP 177 / IS 1448,P:1

ASTM D-2896 / IP 276 / IS 1448,P:86

NEUTRALISATION NUMBER IS A MEASURE OF ACIDITY OR ALKALINITY OF OIL - REPORTED AS EQUIVALENT mg KOH / gm OF OIL.

COLOUR INDICATOR TITRATION : NEW/USED OIL WHERE COLOUR CHANGE IS VISIBLE.

……CONTD.


Quality control significance of tests

CHEMICAL TESTSNEUTRALISATION NUMBER

POTENTIOMETRIC TITRATION : USED CRANKCASE OILS WHERE COLOUR CHANGE OF INDICATOR IS NOT VISIBLE.

* STRAIGHT MINERAL NEW OILS HAVE LOW NEUTRALISATION NO.

* HIGH NEUT. NO. IN NEW OILS IS DUE TO ADDITIVES.

* INCREASE IN NEUT. NO. - USED OIL OXIDATION, PRESENCE OF MINERAL ACIDITY.

NEUT. NO. SERVES AS GUIDELINE FOR MONITORING USED OIL PERFORMANCE.


Quality control significance of tests

PERFORMANCE BASED TESTSOXIDATION STABILITY

OXIDATION STABILITY (OILS)

1. OXIDATION CHARACTERISTICS OF INHIBITED MINERAL OILS, ASTM D-943.

OIL + WATER Fe, Cu CATALYST, OXYGEN 95°C

OXIDATION JUDGED BY TIME TO REACH A NEUT. NO. OF 2.0

2. OXIDATION STABILITY OF STEAM TURBINE OILS BY RBOT ASTM D 2272

OIL + WATER, Cu CATALYST, BOMB 90 PSI OXYGEN, 150°C

OXIDATION IS JUDGED BY TIME TO REACH A SPECIFIED PRESSURE DROP

…..CONTD.


Quality control significance of tests

PERFORMANCE BASED TESTSOXIDATION STABILITY

3. OXIDATION STABILITY OF INHIBITED MINERAL TURBINE OILS IP-280

OIL + S0L.MET. CATALYST Cu/Fe NAPHTHENATE, OXYGEN, 164 HRS @120°C

OXIDATION IS JUDGED BY MEASURING ACIDITY, SLUDGE ETC.

4. OXIDATION TEST FOR LUBRICATING OILS, IP-48

OIL+ AIR,200°C,12 HRS

OXIDATION IS JUDGED FROM INCREASE IN VISCOSITY AND CARBON RESIDUE.


Quality control significance of tests

PERFORMANCE BASED TESTSOXIDATION STABILITY

5. OXIDATION STABILITY OF GREASE BY OXYGEN BOMB : ASTM D-942

OXIDATION MEASURED AS PRESSURE DROP AFTER 100 HRS.

OXIDATION TESTS DATA PROVIDE GUIDELINE IN THE PERFORMANCE OF TURBINE OILS, HYDRAULIC OILS ETC.

OXIDATION TEST DATA HELPS IN SELECTION OF ADDITIVE PACKAGES AS WELL AS BASE STOCKS.


Quality control significance of tests

PERFORMANCE BASED TESTSEXTREME PRESSURE CHARACTERISTICS

FUNCTION OF EXTREME PRESSURE LUBRICANT IS TO SUSTAIN THE LOAD WITHOUT CAUSING SLIDING SURFACES TO BECOME SCORED OR WELDED.


Quality control significance of tests

PERFORMANCE BASED TESTSEXTREME PRESSURE CHARACTERISTICS

1. TIMKEN LUBRICANT TESTER ASTM D-2782 /IP-240

2. FOUR BALL EP LUBRICANT TESTER ASTM D-2783 / IP-39.

PRINCIPLE : ROTATING MEMBER IS BROUGHT TO BEAR AGAINST A STATIONARY OR SLOW MOVING MEMBER IN PRESENCE OF LUBRICANT. LOAD REQUIRED TO CAUSE SCORING OR WELDING IS ASSESSED.

THERE IS NO DIRECT RELATIONSHIP OR CORRELATION BETWEEN LABORATORY TEST DATA AND FIELD PERFORMANCE.

TEST HELPS TO DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN LUBRICANTS WITH LOW, MEDIUM & HIGH EP CHARACTERISTICS.

SULPHUR,PHOSPHOROUS & CHLORINE COMPOUNDS IMPART EP PROPERTIES TO LUBRICANTS.


Quality control significance of tests

THANK YOU


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