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“Traditional use of Tatanka (buffalo)” is a PowerPoint series developed by Badlands National Park and South Dakota Public Broadcasting. The PowerPoint series includes a brief history of buffalo

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

“Traditional use of Tatanka (buffalo)” is a PowerPoint

series developed by Badlands National Park

and South Dakota Public Broadcasting.

The PowerPoint series includes a brief history of buffalo

in South Dakota. Also, there are photos of buffalo parts,

like a buffalo hide and tail. Your students are

encouraged to guess the traditional use of the buffalo

part and its location on the buffalo.

Click the mouse to advance through the PowerPoint.

"Click" will appear in the lower right-hand corner

when it is time to advance.

(Click)

slide2

Traditional use of

Tatanka

(buffalo)

(Click)

slide3

Photo Courtesy of Wikipedia

The animal shown on the left, traditionally used by the Native Americans in

South Dakota, is commonly called a buffalo, but it is not a true buffalo;

it is an American Bison (Bison bison). A true buffalo (water), shown on

the right is a massive ox-like animal with large horns.

We will refer to the American Bison as a buffalo in this interactive, because

many South Dakotans commonly call the bison a buffalo.

(Click)

slide4

Buffalo are the largest land animal in North America. They can measure

six feet in height and weigh up to one ton (2,000 lbs). They are surprisingly

fast animals with very short legs giving them the ability to change direction

very quickly. A buffalo has a very large lung capacity and can outrun a horse.

(Click)

slide5

During the 16th to the 19th century it was estimated that 60 to 70 million

buffalo roamed the Great Plains. Typical herds were described as being several

miles wide and 50 miles long; the ground came alive and rumbled when

they moved. The Native Americans hunted and relied on the buffalo during this time

period. They respected the buffalo using every part of the animal for survival.

(Click)

slide6

Photo Courtesy of the State Archives of the South Dakota State Historical Society

Courtesy of National Archives and Records Administration – West Collection

Photo Courtesy of the State Archives of the South Dakota State Historical Society

Photo Courtesy of the State Archives of the South Dakota State Historical Society

The traditional way of life the Native Americans were accustomed to would suddenly change.

European exploration and settling of the plains reduced the large herds of buffalo in a

relatively short period of time. Over-hunting, fur trading and ranching are a few of the

conditions that reduced the herds from 60 – 70 million in the 1830s to approximately

550 in the late 1880s. Another source estimated there were 1,100 buffalo remaining

in the United States and Canada in the late 1880s. The traditional way of life for the

Native Americans ended and they were forced onto reservations.

(Click)

slide7

Traditional use of

Tatanka “Parts” Gallery

  • Answer the following questions about the buffalo part above:
  • What is the buffalo part called?
  • What is a traditional use of the buffalo part?
  • Where is the buffalo part located on a buffalo?

(Click)

slide8

The buffalo part is tanned buffalo hide

with fur; tanned hide is very soft and pliable.

Native Americans tanned the hide by

spreading the hide with a mixture (paste) of

fat, liver and cooked brains; then it was

placed in the sun to dry.

The hide with hair was

traditionally used for warm

blankets and tipi floor coverings.

It was also used for moccasins;

the moccasins were made fur

side in for warmth in winter.

The section of fur shown here

is 4 inches long; it is very wooly

and thick. The fur was removed

from the outside of the buffalo.

(Click)

slide9

Answer the following questions about the buffalo part above:

  • What is the buffalo part called?
  • What is a traditional use of the buffalo part?
  • Where is the buffalo part located on a buffalo?

(Click)

slide10

The buffalo part is a fleshing tool;

it fits comfortably in the hand.

The bone flesher was

traditionally used to remove

muscle (flesh) and fat from

the hide before it was tanned.

The bone flesher was

removed from the lower

leg of the buffalo.

(Click)

slide11

Answer the following questions about the buffalo part above:

  • What is the buffalo part called?
  • What is a traditional use of the buffalo part?
  • Where is the buffalo part located on a buffalo?

(Click)

slide12

The buffalo part is a bladder bag;

the bladder bag shown in the

photo is rough to the touch,

hard and inflated.

The bladder was used by the

buffalo to store urine before

it was excreted by the animal.

An inflated buffalo bladder bag

was traditionally used by Native

Americans to carry water for

drinking; it can carry

approximately 2 liters of fluid.

(Click)

slide13

Answer the following questions about the buffalo part above:

  • What is the buffalo part called?
  • What is a traditional use of the buffalo part?
  • Where is the buffalo part located on a buffalo?

(Click)

slide14

The buffalo part is called

sinew; the sinew shown in

the photo is very strong

and stringy. The fibers of the

sinew are similar to a very tough

thread; it was traditionally used

to sew buffalo hides together to

make tipis and clothing.

Sinew (tendon) is connective tissue found in animals; it is used to

connect muscle to bone. The muscle of the buffalo’s back was a prime

location to find sinew. Sinew was also used to make bow strings.

Traditional bead-workers still use sinew today.

(Click)

slide15

Answer the following questions about the buffalo part above:

  • What is the buffalo part called?
  • What is a traditional use of the buffalo part?
  • Where is the buffalo part located on a buffalo?

(Click)

slide16

The buffalo part is called

dung or chip. The dung shown

in the photo is very dry,

crumbly and flaky.

The dung was traditionally used

for fuel and to make diaper powder,

jewelry, and toys (frisbee-like).

Dung was a natural by-product of

the buffalo. The chips were plentiful

and easy to collect. The Great Plains did

not have a large source of firewood for

fuel; the dried dung provided a great

alternative fuel source.

Look close – you should notice that the dung

is very fibrous with remnants of plant

material. This reinforces the fact that

buffalo are herbivores (plant-eaters).

Herbivore feces burn nice and clean.

(Click)

slide17

A close examination of the feces in

the photos can provide clues to the

type of food eaten by the animal.

The photo to the right consists of

undigested plant material with no

indication of hair (fur) or bone.

Undigested hair (fur) can be seen in

the photo below; there is no

indication of plant material.

Animals can be classified by

the type of food they consume.

Two types of animals classified

by the food they consume are

carnivores and herbivores.

Carnivores are flesh eating

organisms; herbivores

are plant-eating organisms.

The feces, shown in the two photos,

are a natural by-product of two

different South Dakota animals.

One of the animals is a carnivore

and the other is a herbivore. Can

you guess which photo indicates

a carnivore and which one

indicates a herbivore? Can you

guess the name of each animal?

The photo above is a photo

of buffalo feces; buffalo are

classified as herbivores. The

photo to the left is a photo of

mountain lion feces. Mountain lions

are classified as carnivores.

(Click)

(Click)

slide18

This concludes Part I of the

"Traditional use of Tatanka (buffalo)"

PowerPoint series. Please select Part II for

additional buffalo parts photos and facts.

•Photos provided by Badlands National Park ,

The South Dakota State Historical Society, Wikipedia

and the National Archives and Records

Administration – West Collection

•Information provided by Badlands National Park ,

Where the Buffalo Roam by Milo J. Schult and

the South Dakota State Historical Society

•Music: "Offering" and "In the Wind Cave" from

Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires;

composed and performed by Kevin Locke.

(Click)

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