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Volcano Routing Scheme Routing in a Highly Dynamic Environment. Yashar Ganjali Stanford University Joint work with: Nick McKeown SECON 2005, Santa Clara, CA, Sep. 27, 2005 [email protected] http://yuba.stanford.edu/~yganjali/. Outline. Routing in MANETs Slowly changing topology

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Volcano routing scheme routing in a highly dynamic environment l.jpg

Volcano Routing SchemeRouting in a Highly Dynamic Environment

Yashar Ganjali

Stanford University

Joint work with: Nick McKeown

SECON 2005, Santa Clara, CA, Sep. 27, 2005

[email protected]

http://yuba.stanford.edu/~yganjali/


Outline l.jpg
Outline

  • Routing in MANETs

    • Slowly changing topology

    • Highly changing topology

  • Volcano Routing Scheme

    • Single Flow

    • Multiple Flows

  • Evaluation

    • Mathematical Results

    • Simulations

Volcano Routing Scheme


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Routing in Data Networks

  • Routing in data networks

    • Phase 1: Route discovery

      • Proactive

      • Reactive or on-demand

    • Phase 2: Packet forwarding

  • Routing overhead is reduced

    • Discovery happens very infrequently

Volcano Routing Scheme


Routing in manets l.jpg
Routing in MANETs

  • Changes in topology

    • Node movements

    • Wireless link issues

  • Route changes more frequent

  • Temporary partitioning in network

  • Increased overhead of route discovery phase

  • Accelerate/defer the route discovery process

    • Use flooding to find routes as quickly as possible

    • Buffer when partitioned

Volcano Routing Scheme


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Highly Dynamic Topology

  • What if topology changes constantly?

    • Quickly moving nodes

    • Highly dynamic environment

    • Adversarial model

  • Route discovery failure  two-phase routing doesn’t work

Volcano Routing Scheme


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One-Phase Routing

  • Eliminate explicit route discovery

  • Assign a function to nodes that determines the direction of packets

    • Physical location of nodes:

      • Some variations of geographical routing

    • Number of packets buffered in a node:

      • Volcano Routing Scheme (VRS)

Volcano Routing Scheme


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Outline

  • Routing in MANETs

    • Slowly changing topology

    • Highly changing topology

  • Volcano Routing Scheme

    • Single Flow

    • Multiple Flows

  • Evaluation

    • Mathematical Results

    • Simulations

Volcano Routing Scheme


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Volcano Routing Scheme (VRS)

  • Lava flows towards the sea (low altitude)

  • Local balancing of load

  • Obstacles do not stop lava

  • No explicit route discovery

  • Reordering layers doesn’t disrupt the flow

Volcano Routing Scheme


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Volcano Routing Scheme

  • At the beginning of each time slot:

    • Packets are generated at the source.

  • During the time slot:

    • Each link (v,w)for which P(v)– P(w)>  transfers one packet from v to w.

    •  is called transfer threshold.

  • At the end of the time slot:

    • Packets which arrive at destination are removed.

Volcano Routing Scheme


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Simple Example

  • Time slot 1

    • Packet generated

  • Time slot 2

    • Packet generated

    • Two transfered

    • One received

  • Time slot 3

    • Packet generated

  • Time slot 4

    • Packet generated

    • One transfered

    • One received

m

s

d

Volcano Routing Scheme


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Volcano Routing Scheme

Volcano Routing Scheme


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Advantages

No explicit route discovery

Completely distributed

Low complexity

Minimal amount of control traffic

Suitable for highly dynamic environments

System is proved to be stable

Path taken by packets is near optimal

Limitations

Requires continuous stream of packets from source to destination

Packet reordering might happen

Pros and Cons

Volcano Routing Scheme


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Multi-Flow VRS

  • Time-Division VRS

    • Divide time equally among K flows

  • Maximum-Pressure VRS

    • For a link (v,w) serve the flow i which has the maximum amount of pressure Pi(v)- Pi(w)

Volcano Routing Scheme


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Multi-Flow VRS

Volcano Routing Scheme


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Outline

  • Routing in MANETs

    • Slowly changing topology

    • Highly changing topology

  • Volcano Routing Scheme

    • Single Flow

    • Multiple Flows

  • Evaluation

    • Mathematical Results

    • Simulations

Volcano Routing Scheme


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Evaluation Method

  • Metrics

    • Stability (packet loss ratio)

    • Queue size distribution

    • Routing path length

  • Factors

    • Connectivity (communication range, number of nodes, …)

    • Number and amount of flows

    • Mobility process

    • Transfer threshold 

Volcano Routing Scheme


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Stability

Strict Stability: total number of packets in the network is bounded.

F-Min-Provisioned: capacity of minimum cut is at least F.

Theorem. If the source injects at most Fpackets the system remains strictly stable if the network is F-min-provisioned.

Volcano Routing Scheme


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Packet Loss vs. Flow Demand

  • 100 nodes distributed uniformly in a 1x1 square

  • CR = 0.26

  • Velocity ~ [0.01..0.2]

  •  = 2

  • Average number of neighbors = 20

  • Stability independent of buffer size

Volcano Routing Scheme


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Packet Loss: TD-VRS vs. MP-VRS

Volcano Routing Scheme


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Average No. of Neighbors = Flow Demand

Packet Loss: Communication Range

Volcano Routing Scheme


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Packet Loss: Mobility Process

  • No difference between random walk and waypoint model

  • Stability independent of velocity

  • Extremely low velocity can cause instability

Volcano Routing Scheme


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Queue Size Distribution

Volcano Routing Scheme


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Near-Optimal Paths

  • In a fixed topology packets take shortest paths.

  • If flow rate is D- we can choose such that

    • Almost surely all packets take the firstD shortest paths.

  • Trade-ff between

    • Number of outstanding packets

    • Routing path length

Volcano Routing Scheme


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Path Length vs. Delta

Volcano Routing Scheme


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Summary

  • Introduced Volcano Routing Scheme

    • Distributed, fast, low complexity, …

    • Need stream of packets

  • Variations of VRS: Time Division, Maximum Pressure

  • Stable under admissible traffic

  • Short queuing delay

  • Routing path near optimal

Volcano Routing Scheme


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Thank You!

Questions?

Volcano Routing Scheme


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Extra Slides

Volcano Routing Scheme


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Generalizing to More Flows

  • Flow 1

    • Source: node 1

    • Destination: node 4

  • Flow 2

    • Source: node 4

    • Destination: node 1

Volcano Routing Scheme


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Packet Loss: Flow Demand

Volcano Routing Scheme


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Packet Loss: Number of Nodes

Volcano Routing Scheme


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Loss vs. Velocity

Volcano Routing Scheme


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Packet Loss vs. Node Velocity

Volcano Routing Scheme


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Queue Size Distribution: Delta

Volcano Routing Scheme


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Queue Size Distribution

Volcano Routing Scheme


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