Weight loss weight gain and weight maintenance
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Weight Loss, Weight Gain and Weight Maintenance. Energy Units. calorie Basic energy/heat unit The amount of heat necessary to raise temp of 1 gram of water 1 ° C. Kilocalorie (kcal) Basic food energy unit The amount of heat necessary to raise temp of 1 kg water 1 ° C

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Weight loss weight gain and weight maintenance

Weight Loss, Weight Gain and Weight Maintenance


Energy units
Energy Units

  • calorie

    • Basic energy/heat unit

    • The amount of heat necessary to raise temp of 1 gram of water 1° C.

  • Kilocalorie (kcal)

    • Basic food energy unit

    • The amount of heat necessary to raise temp of 1 kg water 1° C

    • 1 kcal = 1000 calories

  • Calorie is same as kcal


Body fatness
Body Fatness

  • Minimal Fat

    • Males: ~3%

    • Females: ~12%

  • Ideal Fatness

    • Varies with individual

    • Varies with type of athlete


Basic energy equation
Basic Energy Equation

If Energy Consumed is = Energy Expended, then weight is stable

If Energy Consumed is >Energy Expended, then weight is gained

If Energy Consumed is < Energy Expended, then weight is lost


Energy storage in the body
Energy Storage in the Body

  • Excess energy in any form is stored

    • Excess CHO is stored as fat

    • Excess Pro is stored as fat

    • Excess Fat is stored as fat

  • Must distinguish excess energy from energy necessary for muscular contaction

    • Liver glycogen

    • Muscle glycogen

    • Muscle triglycerides



50 kcal Daily Energy Gain

  • 350 kcal per week (0.1 pounds)

  • 18,200 kcal per year (5.2 pounds)

  • 182,00 kcal per decade (52 pounds)


Food and Weight Loss

  • The most important factor is the total number of calories consumed

  • Carbohydrates and protein consumed in excess of the body’s need will result in the excess being stored as fat.

  • It is more efficient for the body to store fat as fat than to store carbos or protein as fat.

    • 95% of excess fat calories are stored as fat

    • 75-80% of excess carbo/protein is stored as fat


Glycemic index gi
Glycemic Index (GI)

The GI reflects the rate of digestion and absorption of CHO

Blood glucose area after test food

GI =

X 100

Blood glucose area after reference food


Glycemic index
Glycemic Index

  • Measure of how rapidly CHO is digested and becomes available in the blood

  • Highest value assigned to glucose (100)

  • The higher the value, the faster it gets into the blood

  • The higher the value, the greater the insulin response


Problem with chronic hyperinsulemia
Problem with Chronic Hyperinsulemia

  • Promotes fat storage

  • “wears out” the pancreas

  • Promotes Type II Diabetes


Characteristics of fat that make it preferential to cho as a storage substrate
Characteristics of Fat That Make it Preferential to CHO as a Storage Substrate

  • More than 2X as much energy per gram

    • 1 gm fat = 9 kcals

    • 1 gm CHO = 4 kcals

  • Not hydrated when stored

    • For every gram of glycogen stored, 3 grams of water are stored.

    • Average person would have 50-75 additional pounds as water if fat were hydrated to the same extent as water.


Exercise and Weight Loss Storage Substrate

  • Regular aerobic exercise may increase BMR

  • More calories can be expended doing aerobic exercise than any other kind

  • The harder you exercise and the longer you exercise, the more calories you expend.


Misconceptions about Exercise and Weight Loss Storage Substrate

  • To loose fat from a certain area of the body, exercise that particular area

  • Exercising at a lower intensity will reduce fat more than exercising at a higher intensity


Tips for Effective Weight Loss Storage Substrate

  • Weight loss is a long term project. There are no easy short cuts.

  • Reduce fat in your diet to less than 30% of total calories

  • Reduce total calories by no more than 25% of calories required to maintain weight

  • Increase caloric expenditure and REE with regular aerobic exercise???


Weight Gain Storage Substrate

  • Adequate caloric intake

    • 2500-3500 kcal per pound of muscle

    • 1 pound of gain per week or 400-500 kcals per day

  • Adequate protein intake (0.8-2 g/kg)

  • Adequate stimulus of skeletal muscle

  • Adequate recovery for muscle

  • Adequate hormonal environment

    • Timing of protein intake

    • Supplements


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