Weight Loss, Weight Gain and Weight Maintenance

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Weight Loss, Weight Gain and Weight Maintenance - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Weight Loss, Weight Gain and Weight Maintenance. Energy Units. calorie Basic energy/heat unit The amount of heat necessary to raise temp of 1 gram of water 1 ° C. Kilocalorie (kcal) Basic food energy unit The amount of heat necessary to raise temp of 1 kg water 1 ° C

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Weight Loss, Weight Gain and Weight Maintenance

Energy Units
• calorie
• Basic energy/heat unit
• The amount of heat necessary to raise temp of 1 gram of water 1° C.
• Kilocalorie (kcal)
• Basic food energy unit
• The amount of heat necessary to raise temp of 1 kg water 1° C
• 1 kcal = 1000 calories
• Calorie is same as kcal
Body Fatness
• Minimal Fat
• Males: ~3%
• Females: ~12%
• Ideal Fatness
• Varies with individual
• Varies with type of athlete
Basic Energy Equation

If Energy Consumed is = Energy Expended, then weight is stable

If Energy Consumed is >Energy Expended, then weight is gained

If Energy Consumed is < Energy Expended, then weight is lost

Energy Storage in the Body
• Excess energy in any form is stored
• Excess CHO is stored as fat
• Excess Pro is stored as fat
• Excess Fat is stored as fat
• Must distinguish excess energy from energy necessary for muscular contaction
• Liver glycogen
• Muscle glycogen
• Muscle triglycerides

50 kcal Daily Energy Gain

• 350 kcal per week (0.1 pounds)
• 18,200 kcal per year (5.2 pounds)
• 182,00 kcal per decade (52 pounds)

Food and Weight Loss

• The most important factor is the total number of calories consumed
• Carbohydrates and protein consumed in excess of the body’s need will result in the excess being stored as fat.
• It is more efficient for the body to store fat as fat than to store carbos or protein as fat.
• 95% of excess fat calories are stored as fat
• 75-80% of excess carbo/protein is stored as fat
Glycemic Index (GI)

The GI reflects the rate of digestion and absorption of CHO

Blood glucose area after test food

GI =

X 100

Blood glucose area after reference food

Glycemic Index
• Measure of how rapidly CHO is digested and becomes available in the blood
• Highest value assigned to glucose (100)
• The higher the value, the faster it gets into the blood
• The higher the value, the greater the insulin response
Problem with Chronic Hyperinsulemia
• Promotes fat storage
• “wears out” the pancreas
• Promotes Type II Diabetes
Characteristics of Fat That Make it Preferential to CHO as a Storage Substrate
• More than 2X as much energy per gram
• 1 gm fat = 9 kcals
• 1 gm CHO = 4 kcals
• Not hydrated when stored
• For every gram of glycogen stored, 3 grams of water are stored.
• Average person would have 50-75 additional pounds as water if fat were hydrated to the same extent as water.

Exercise and Weight Loss

• Regular aerobic exercise may increase BMR
• More calories can be expended doing aerobic exercise than any other kind
• The harder you exercise and the longer you exercise, the more calories you expend.

Misconceptions about Exercise and Weight Loss

• To loose fat from a certain area of the body, exercise that particular area
• Exercising at a lower intensity will reduce fat more than exercising at a higher intensity

Tips for Effective Weight Loss

• Weight loss is a long term project. There are no easy short cuts.
• Reduce fat in your diet to less than 30% of total calories
• Reduce total calories by no more than 25% of calories required to maintain weight
• Increase caloric expenditure and REE with regular aerobic exercise???

Weight Gain

• Adequate caloric intake
• 2500-3500 kcal per pound of muscle
• 1 pound of gain per week or 400-500 kcals per day
• Adequate protein intake (0.8-2 g/kg)
• Adequate stimulus of skeletal muscle
• Adequate recovery for muscle
• Adequate hormonal environment
• Timing of protein intake
• Supplements