5 application examples
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5. Application Examples. 5.1. Programmable compensation for analog circuits (Automated Calibration, Optimal tuning, Parameter adjustment) 5.2. Programmable delays in high-speed digital circuits (Clock skew compensation)

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5. Application Examples

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5 application examples

5. Application Examples

5.1. Programmable compensation for analog circuits (Automated Calibration, Optimal tuning, Parameter adjustment)

5.2. Programmable delays in high-speed digital circuits (Clock skew compensation)

5.3. Automated discovery/invention by Evolutionary Algorithms (Creative Design)

5.4. EDA Tools, analog circuit design

5.5. Adaptation to extreme temperature electronics (Survivability by EHW)

5.6. Fault-tolerance and fault-recovery

5.7. Evolvable antennas (In-field adaptation to changing environment)

5.8. Adaptive filters (Function change as result of mission change)

5.9 Evolution of controllers

1


Analogue ehw chip for cellular phones higuchi japan

Analogue EHW chip for cellular phones –Higuchi, Japan

  • Off-line analogue EHW

  • Intermediate Frequency Filter

    • Analogue Band-pass Filter

    • Must be compact and fast: LSI required

    • Large market

  • Variations in analogue components performance are adjusted by GA.

  • Installed in cellular phones since Dec. 2001.

From presentation by T. Higuchi, Japan, at EH-2003


Process variations in analog lsis

Process Variations in Analog LSIs

  • Values of the manufactured analog circuit components differ from the precise specifications

  • Poor yield rates especially for high-end analogue circuits

e.g. IF filter: a 1% discrepancy from the center

frequency unacceptable

From presentation by T. Higuchi, Japan, at EH-2003

3


Cures

Cures

  • AI/GA Approach

  • Use GA to control calibration

    • Provide many adjustment/calibration points in the circuit

  • Improved Yield Rates

    • adjustment for each circuit

  • Smaller Circuits

    • use of smaller size analog components

  • Less Power Consumption

Conventional Approach

  • Use “large” analog components

    • Manufacturing error due to process variations becomes relatively small

    • Price:

      • Higher manufacturing cost

      • Greater power consumption

  • Calibration at a LSI tester

    • a few seconds per a chip

From presentation by T. Higuchi, Japan, at EH-2003

Mass-Production

4


Gm amplifier

Gm amplifier

Bias Current

Transconductance value:

Variations by up to as much as 20%

Calibration by varying bias currents

From presentation by T. Higuchi, Japan, at EH-2003

5


Review transconductance amplifiers

Review: Transconductance amplifiers

  • The OTA is a transconductance type device, which means that the input voltage controls an output current by means of the device transconductance, labeled gm. What is important and useful about the OTA’s transconductance parameter is that it is controlled by an external current, the amplifier bias current, IABC.

  • Active filters are a standard application of the op-amp which can benefit greatly from the controllability of the OTA. What makes the OTA so attractive in these circuits is the ability to form filter circuits with voltage-variable control (via the IABC input) over a n umber of key performance parameters of the filter. The controlled parameter can be the midband gain of the circuit. Alternatively, OTA-based active filters can use the external bias setting to control the location of the critical frequency, or 3-dB frequency, in a filter. The next logical step in controllability is the provision for independent gain and critical frequency setting. A number of other active filters can be realized with th e OTA. These provide the ability to not only change the critical frequency, the gain, or both, but also to preserve the shape of the response. For instance, one might want to control the critical frequency of the filter, but without altering the passband ripple. It is even possible to change the type of response from lowpass to allpass to highpass by continuous adjustment of the transconductance gm.

  • http://et.nmsu.edu/~etti/winter98/electronics/grise/wrg.html

6


Calibration by ga

Calibration by GA

0

1

0

0

1

1

0

1

0

0

1

The bias currents

can be varied subtly.

Bias Current

i

100

i

4

i

i

Register

2

0

0

0

0

Configuration Bits

Bias Current Controller

The GA seeks the optimal configuration bits.

evaluation : the measured gain and group delay

From presentation by T. Higuchi, Japan, at EH-2003

7


Ga calibrated if filter

GA-calibrated IF filter

IF filter LSI

evaluation

IF filter

G

m

GA Software

on LSI Tester

4

IN

G

G

G

m

m

m

Search Points

1

2

3

i

i

i

i

B3

B1

B4

B2

Calibration

0

1

0

0

1

1

0

1

0

0

1

Register

0

1

0

0

1

1

0

1

0

0

1

Configuration Bits

Download

OUT

( Gm : Transconductance Amplifier )

From presentation by T. Higuchi, Japan, at EH-2003

8


Gm c if filter lsi

Gm-C IF Filter LSI

  • Intermediate Frequency Filter

    • Center Frequency : 455kHz

    • Bandwidth : 21kHz

  • 39 Gm amplifiers within the filter

    • GA calibrate all Gm values to conform to the specifications

From presentation by T. Higuchi, Japan, at EH-2003

9


Specifications for the if filter

Specifications for the IF filter

0

-4

-8

-12

-16

-20

0

-10

-20

-30

-40

-50

-60

-70

Spec. ( -3dB Points)

Gain (dB)

Gain (dB)

Ideal Response

Ideal Response

440 445 450 455 460 465 470

420 430 440 450 460 470 480 490

Frequency (kHz)

Frequency (kHz)

Group delay : less than 20 usec

From presentation by T. Higuchi, Japan, at EH-2003

10


Filter architecture

Filter Architecture

Configuration Bits

Bias Current Controller

PLL

CLK

Filter 1

w0,…,w5

Q0,…,Q5

a0

Filter 3

w12,…,w17

Q12,…,Q17

a2

Filter 2

w6,…,w11

Q6,…,Q11

a1

IF IN

IF OUT

39 parameters Gm values

w0,…,w17 center freq.

Q0,…,Q17 band width

a0,…,a2 filter gain

6th order Gm-C filter

From presentation by T. Higuchi, Japan, at EH-2003

11


Calibration experiments

Calibration Experiments

After

Calibration

Spec.

Gain

Before

Calibration

29 out of the 30 test chips could

be calibrated (No chip could meet

the spec. without calibration!)

Frequency

Yield : 97%

From presentation by T. Higuchi, Japan, at EH-2003

12


Results of ga calibrated if filter chip

Results of GA-calibrated IF Filter Chip

Filter 1

PLL

Filter 2

Filter 3

DAC

Filter area was reduced by 63%

Power dissipation reduced by 26%

Yield rates improved (97%)

This approach can be applied to

a wide variety of analog circuits

Good approach for low feature size!

Photo of the die

From presentation by T. Higuchi, Japan, at EH-2003

13


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