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Digestion and Absorption of the Food Nutrients. Chapter 3 Part 3. GI Tract Disorders. Factors influencing GI function Emotional state Intestinal cramping, queasy stomach Exercise - moderate Reduces liver disease Gallstones Constipation Colon cancer. GI Tract Disorders.

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gi tract disorders
GI Tract Disorders
  • Factors influencing GI function
    • Emotional state
      • Intestinal cramping, queasy stomach
    • Exercise - moderate
      • Reduces liver disease
      • Gallstones
      • Constipation
      • Colon cancer
gi tract disorders1
GI Tract Disorders
  • Factors influencing GI function
    • Exercise – high intensity
      • GERD
      • Hiatal hernia
      • Irritable bowel syndrome
      • Viral gastroenteritis
gi tract disorders2
GI Tract Disorders
  • More frequent in women
  • Common in young athletes
  • Infrequent in gliding movement sports
    • Cycling
  • Serious medical conditions
gi tract disorders3
GI Tract Disorders
  • Constipation
    • Defecation habits are different among people.
      • Difficult or infrequent evacuation
    • Many causes are possible.
      • Ignoring normal urges
      • Muscle spasms
        • Slows feces movement
      • Certain medications and supplements
        • Antacids, calcium, iron
gi tract disorders4
GI Tract Disorders
  • Constipation
    • Colonic irrigation is the internal washing of the large intestine and can be hazardous.
    • Strategies
      • High-fiber diet
      • Increased fluids
      • Exercise regularly.
      • Respond quickly to the urge to defecate.
gi tract disorders5
GI Tract Disorders
  • Laxatives
    • Can work on the intestinal nerve plexus or mucosal surface
    • Bulk producing laxatives
      • Bran
    • Stool softeners
      • Dulcolax
    • Hydrating agents
      • Milk of magnesia
    • Hyperosmotic agents
      • Glycerol
    • Draw water into the large intestine
    • Regular use can be harmful
      • Decreases muscle action of large intestine
gi tract disorders6
GI Tract Disorders
  • Belching and Gas
    • Strategies
      • Eat slowly.
      • Chew thoroughly.
      • Relax while eating.
      • Watch bothersome foods.
  • Hiccups are triggered by eating or drinking too fast.
gi tract disorders7
GI Tract Disorders
  • Hemorrhoids may be a problem.
    • Swollen veins of the rectum and anus
    • Intense pressure and straining
    • Dietary recommendation:
      • Fiber and fluid
gi tract disorders8
GI Tract Disorders
  • Diarrhea: 2009-1.5 million deaths worldwide
    • Frequent, loose, watery stools
      • Irritable bowel syndrome or colitis
      • Infections-bacteria, viruses
      • Cause excess intestinal secretions
gi tract disorders9
GI Tract Disorders
  • Types of Diarrhea
    • Secretory
      • Increased secretion or reduced absorption of fluids
      • Cholera (secretes Cl- into intestinal lumen, Na+ follows)
    • Osmotic
      • Lactose intolerance, high sugar solutions (particularly during ex.)
    • Exudative
      • Crohn’s disease (blood in bowel)
    • Motility related
      • Increased motility, diabetic neuropathy
    • Inflammatory
      • Infections
    • Dysentery
      • Blood in stool, caused by salmonella poisoning, for ex.
gi tract disorders10
GI Tract Disorders
  • Diverticulosis
    • Intestinal walls weaken and bulge. The bulging pockets are called diverticula
  • Diverticulitis
    • Worsened condition – inflammation
    • Requires intervention - surgery
  • Increase fiber intake
gi tract disorders11
GI Tract Disorders
  • Heartburn
    • Lower esophageal sphincter – relaxes
      • Reflux
      • Painful
        • Acid from stomach reaches esophagus and irritates lining
gi tract disorders12
GI Tract Disorders
  • Heartburn and Acid Indigestion
    • Strategies
      • Small meals
      • Liquids between meals
      • Sit up while eating.
      • Wait 1 hour after eating before lying down.
      • Wait 2 hours after eating before exercising.
      • Refrain from tight-fitting clothing.
      • Avoid bothersome foods.
      • Refrain from tobacco use.
      • Lose weight if overweight.
gi tract disorders13
GI Tract Disorders
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
    • Backward flow of stomach contents into the esophagus.
    • Exercise exacerbates GERD
    • > 60% athletes
      • Worst in weightlifters
      • Mild in endurance runners
gi tract disorders14
GI Tract Disorders
  • Antacids and acid controllers may help indigestion.
  • 4 hr from evening meal to bed
  • Avoid exercising after eating
  • Avoid foods that relax sphincter
    • Chocolate, peppermint, coffee, alcohol, tobacco,
gi tract disorders15
GI Tract Disorders
  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome
    • Symptoms
      • Cramps, bloating, increased frequency, diarrhea, constipation
    • Causes
      • Altered intestinal peristalsis
      • Decrease pain threshold
gi tract disorders16
GI Tract Disorders
  • Individualized treatment
    • Elimination diet-dairy, gas-forming foods (cabbage, beans), some fruit-grapes, cherries
    • high fiber foods
    • Moderate caffeine, avoid dairy
    • Low-fat, small, frequent meals
    • Stress reduction
choking
Choking
  • Food becomes lodged in the trachea.
  • The larynx cannot make sounds.
  • The Heimlich maneuver may need to be used.
  • Strategies
    • Small bites
    • Chew thoroughly.
    • Don’t talk or laugh with food in the mouth.
    • Don’t eat when breathing hard.
ulcers
Ulcers
  • Peptic ulcer
    • Area of GI tract eroded by gastric acid, pepsin
    • Exposes nerves
    • 15% stomach
    • 85% duodenal
    • Diet
      • Soluble fiber – fruits, vegetables: protective
      • Refined sugar: increases risk
ulcers1
Ulcers
  • Treatment
    • Antibiotics
      • Helicobacter pylori
        • Cause of most ulcers
    • Proton pump (H+) inhibitors
      • Keep HCL from forming
    • Antacids
      • Neutralize stomach acids
vomiting
Vomiting
  • Body’s adaptive mechanism
  • Dehydration is a concern.
  • May be self-induced as in eating disorders
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