Sustainability of dry petfood and the carbon footprint
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Sustainability of dry Petfood and the carbon-footprint. Jacques Wijnoogst. Tema & Partners. Owner and senior consultant. First Some definitions. Definitions: Sustainability is, in a broad sense, “the ability to endure, to exist and continue to exist”

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Sustainability of dry petfood and the carbon footprint

Sustainability of dry Petfood and the carbon-footprint

Jacques Wijnoogst

Tema & Partners

Owner and senior consultant

First some definitions
First Some definitions

  • Definitions:

  • Sustainability is, in a broad sense, “the ability to endure, to exist and continue to exist”

  • A carbon footprint is "the total set of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions caused by an organization, event or product"

Further definitions
Further definitions

  • The ecological “footprint” of a human being is a (controversial) method to measure how environmentally harmful our way of living is.

  • It is a measurement of all greenhouse gases we individually produce and has units of tonnes (or kg) of carbon dioxide equivalent.

Human co 2 production
Human CO2 production

  • An European produces as an average

    11 tonnes CO2 - equivalent per year

And animals
And animals?

  • Robert and Brenda Vale, two architects who specialise in sustainable living at Victoria University of Wellington in New Zealand wrote a book :

  • “Time to Eat the Dog: The real guide to sustainable living”

How to compare eco footprints
How to compare eco-footprints?

  • The authors calculated the ecological paw, claw and fin-print of the family pet and they expressed it in land surface area (m2, ha )

  • They calculated the energy which is consumed to produce, maintain, exist or grow and compare this with the energy that can be produced by one hectare per year.

  • This is approximately 135 gigajoules

And now
And now!

  • The consumption of a 4,6 Toyota Land Cruiser, driving 10.000km/year, is 55.1 gigajoules and the Vales calculated a resulting eco-footprint of 0.41 hectares.

  • A big dog like a German shepherd has a footprint of 1.1 hectares if the dog eats his daily meal of dry pellets and based on the average composition of this feed.

Some other animals
Some other animals

  • Cats have an eco-footprint of 0,15 hectares

    (slightly less than a Volkswagen Golf)

  • Hamsters have 0,014 hectares each ( two is the same as a Plasma TV)

  • Even a gold fish has a “fin-print” of 0.00034 hectares to sustain (equals two cellphones)

And a check
And a check!

  • John Barrett at the Stockholm Environment Institute in York, UK checked the calculations and concluded:

  • "Owning a dog really is quite an extravagance, mainly because of the carbon footprint of meat"

  • David Mackay, physicist at Cambridge University, UK and government’s energy advisor says:

  • "Pets definitely deserve attention: by my estimates, the energy footprint of a cat is about 2 per cent of the average British person's energy footprint - and it's bigger for most dogs."

What can be our attitude towards this
What can be our attitude towards this?

  • First of all: Let’s except that there might come more critical attitude to dry petfood!

And this can be a resulting main question
And this can be a resulting main question!

  • “How can we make our dry products more Green?”

Possible philosophy
Possible philosophy

  • Pets belong to the human environment and we should take care to feed them well!

  • But we also have to take care of the carbon footprint and an option is to produce feed by using only by-products from the human food industry.

Let s start with the raw materials
Let’s start with the raw materials

  • A dry petfood in general might contain:

  • Meat or fish meal like ingredients which are mainly dried to give it better storage and handling properties. --This is the first production of a lot of ghg’s.

  • Whole cereals like corn, wheat and so on. Here we need a lot of fertilizer to get good crops and we need to cook them -- costing energy

  • Whole soy or soy products sometimes made by special -- energy consuming processes.

Composition of a dog product
Composition of a dog product




Origin of the raw materials
Origin of the raw materials

  • Whole cereals 50,80%

  • Cereal by-products 8,30%

  • Animal by-products 35,90%

  • Premix/minerals 5,10%

As diagram
As Diagram

here we can “change”

Here and

And this means
And this means:

  • no whole cereals,

  • no fish meal from caught fish, only by-product from fish (filleting) processing plants and/or hydrolyzed proteins from fish and meat remains.

  • No oils/fats from plants but only from by-products from meat processing facilities

Also increase the fcr of petfood
Also increase the FCR of petfood

  • The Feed Conversion Rate = Kg’s of feed to make kg’s of meat.

  • FCR improvement is not a hot item in the petfood business. We are no meat producers!

  • Nevertheless look what happened in the feed industry:

  • In 1950s, 5 kg of feed were required to produce 1 kg of pig (live weight). The figure is now below 3 kg for the most efficient production systems!

If we do this for petfood
If we do this for petfood

  • The benefit for society is threefold:

    • Lower demand for feed sources

    • Lower production cost

    • Lower amounts of N and P emissions, smaller droppings

  • And the main result:

  • Lower carbon-footprint

And an other option
And an other option

  • Keep animal byproducts from slaughter houses liquid and/or hydrolize them and produce high concentrated feed pellets from it by “extrusion at the slaughter house”

  • Mix with pellets made from the agriculture by-products and with simple extruders that can do “Dry extrusion”

The influence of that
The influence of that ?

  • No more drying cost of blood, hydrolized proteins, meat by-products and so on

  • Dry extrusion of the agriculture by-products can result in average 20 % less drying cost

Let s go green
Let’s go green!

  • Produce new products that are:

  • Only made from by-products of human food production.

  • Avoid drying of certain raw materials and introduce them as liquid in the extrusion process.

And in the current factory situation
And in the current factory situation?

  • Look to the main energy consuming processes and analyze properly all steps.

Some energy saving options
Some energy saving options petfood?

  • Close loop grinding and introduction of flash off in the grinder or in fluid bed exchanger

  • Finer grinding of the meal

  • Addition of enzymes in the meal

Finer grinding
Finer grinding petfood?

  • 10 – 20% capacity increase extruder

  • 1 – 2 % less steam in the conditioner

  • Less wear extruder barrel and screw elements

  • Better and more equal shape of the chunks

  • Higher quality

Enzyme addition
Enzyme addition petfood?

  • Addition of amylase can give 10% capacity increase and lowers energy use of the motor.

Options for design of the process lines
Options for design of the process lines petfood?

  • Use a gas fired steam generator per line and connect the exhaust with dryer entrance (exhaust air can be up to 140 degrees Celsius)

  • Do not use pneumatic transport between extruder and dryer but place extruder on top of the dryer. (can save up to 75 kW/hr electric energy and less air to be treated in odour abatement installation)

More options
More options petfood?

  • Use an eco-processor (fluid bed system) to recover energy from flash off and the first stage of the dryer /cooler exhaust air.

  • The aim of the eco-process is to recycle the heat content of these mass flows into the process and thus to reduce the demand for live heating steam. (Less CO2!)

  • Besides, the eco-process ensures a significant reduction of the emission of odours.

So far some options to improve petfood?

Thank you!