Pediatric Micronutrient Deficiencies, Epidemiology and prevention I. Introduction, principles and iron deficiency Drora Fraser. Drora Fraser. Director of the S. Daniel Abraham International Center for Health and Nutrition, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (BGU), Beer-Sheva, Israel.
“Millions of people suffer and may die from lack of minute traces of nutrients. Methods of prevention are cheap and simple. Their universal application could yield health and economic benefits comparable to those achieved by the smallpox eradication”.
Dr. V. Ramalingaswami, Chair, LTNDP task force on health research and development, End hidden hunger conference, Montreal, Canada, October 1991.
Nutritional status flux of populations
Severe micronutrient malnutrition
Group A Group B
Vitamin A Folate
Iodine Vitamin - B12
There are options for effective interventions:
Age/gender Hemoglobin< hematocrit<
g/l mmol/l l/l
child 6M-5Y 110 6.83 0.33
5-11Y 115 7.13 0.34
12-14Y 120 7.45 0.36
women 120 7.45 0.36
pregnancy 110 6.83 0.33
men 130 8.07 0.39
Iron deficiency prevalence in a population is 2 to 2.5 times the rates of anemia.
Category of public Prevalence of
health importance anemia in risk gp.
Moderate 12.0 -19.9%
Low 5.0 - 11.9%
Naggan L, Levy A, Shoham-Vardi I, 1994
In children and adolescents
Iron fortification of foods, foods in the target group:
To be considered:
Fortification Place Cost(1) Protect(2)
Salt A 0.12 0.12
Flour B 0.16 --
Sugar C 0.12 0.12
Sugar D 1.00 1.00
Tablets E 3.2-5.3 3.2-5.3