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From Syllabus Design to Curriculum Design. Kelly 9710001M Dora 9710011M. From Syllabus Design to Curriculum Design. The Quest for New Methods Changing Needs for Foreign Languages in Europe English for Specific Purposes Needs Analysis in ESP Communicative Language Teaching

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From syllabus design to curriculum design l.jpg

From Syllabus Design to Curriculum Design

Kelly 9710001M

Dora 9710011M


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From Syllabus Design to Curriculum Design

  • The Quest for New Methods

  • Changing Needs for Foreign Languages in Europe

  • English for Specific Purposes

  • Needs Analysis in ESP

  • Communicative Language Teaching

  • Emergence of a Curriculum Approach in Language Teaching


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The Quest for New Methods

  • World War II  immigrants, refugees and foreign students  UK, Canada, US, Australia

  • There was much greater mobility of peoples in air travel, international trade and commerce.


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The Quest for New Methods

Whites(1988,9) comments:

  • The emergence of the USA as an English-

    speaking superpower

  • The industrial and technological developments of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.


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The Quest for New Methods

  • Explore new teaching method

     linguistics  organization & structure

    of language

  • A new approach  Oral Approach

    Situational Language Teaching British


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The Quest for New Methods Situational Language Teaching in British

  • A structural syllabus with graded vocabulary levels

  • Meaningful presentation of structures in contexts

  • PPP method- Presentation/ Practice/ Production


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The Quest for New Methods

  • 1950s- Situational Approach

    British, Australia, Malaysia, India, Hong Kong

  • 1960s- Audiolingual Method

    United States

  • 1978s- Audiovisual Method

    Europe


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The Quest for New MethodsAudiolingual Method in US

  • Habits are strengthened by reinforcement

  • Foreign language habits are formed most

    effectively by giving the right response

  • Language is behavior


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Changing Needs for Foreign Languages in Europe

  • The upsurge in English language teaching

    (since the mid-1950s~1960s)

     A Language Teaching Revolution

    a) Introduce new methods and materials

    b) WHY/ HOW people learn a second language

    c) Evaluation results

    Jupp&Hodin(1975)


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Changing Needs for Foreign Languages in Europe

  • In 1969s-The Council of Europe

    a) removed language barriers

    b) modern language enrichment

    c) the modern Europe language

  • In 1970s- The Decision of school system

  • In 1971s- The Unit-credit System for Adults


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Communicative Language Teaching in Europe

  • Whole context of teaching and learning

  • The need for society

  • The need for learners


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English for Specific Purpose

  • To make the courses relevant to learners’ needs

  • The Language for Specific Purpose Movement

  • The ESP approach concerns

    a) the need for Non-English background students

    b) the need for employment

    c) the need for business purpose

    d) the need for migrants


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English for Specific Purpose

  • University of Michigan

     language patterns and vocabulary

  • A number of selected texts appeared in 1960s

    a) The selection and gradation books

    b) General English books

    c) Specialized English books

    d) Word Frequency Counts

    e) Discourse Analysis


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English for Specific Purpose

  • The widely used books

    Course in Basic Scientific English

    (Ewer& Latorre,1969)

  • The merits of this book:

    a) three million words of scientific English

    b) covering ten areas of science & technology

    c) sentence patterns

    d) structural words

    e) non-structural vocabulary


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English for Specific Purpose

  • The determine of “register ”:

    * what is actually taking place

    * what part the language is playing

    * who is taking part

    (Halliday 1978,31)


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English for Specific Purpose

In 1970s the ESP approach:

  • Register Analysis

    distinctive patterns of occurrence of vocabulary,

    verb forms, noun phrases, and tense usage.

  • Three categories describes the register:

    * the research process

    * the vocabulary of analysis

    * the vocabulary of evaluation

    (Martin,1976)


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English for Specific Purpose

In 1970s the ESP approach:

  • Discourse Analysis

    identify the linguistic structure of longer

    samples of speech or text.

    *analysis of units of organization within texts

    *speech events

    *examines patterns


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English for Specific Purpose

In 1970s the ESP approach

  • Discourse analysis:

    The problem-solution structure

    a) Introduction

    b) Background

    c) Argument

    d) Conclusion


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Needs analysis in ESP

The view of Stevens:

(a) Restriction—Basic Skills of Understanding Speech, Speaking, Reading, and Writing.

(b) Selection—Vocabulary, Patterns of Grammar, and Function of Language.

(c) Themes and Topics—Themes, Topics, Situations, and Universes of Discourse.

(d) Communicative Needs—For Communication


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Needs analysis in ESP

(a) Learner’s Needs are Communicative Ability.

(b) Preparation for Learners to Carry Out Tasks

(c) Try to Perform a Role (Robinson)

ex: waiters, food technology

(d) Learners, Teachers, and Employers’

involvement (Richterich and Chanceril)


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Needs analysis in ESP

Munby’s Systematic Approach:

  • Needs Analysis in ESP Course Design and

    Two Dimensions of Needs Analysis:

    (a) Specification for the Target-Level

    (b) Turning the Information into an ESP Syllabus


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Needs analysis in ESP

Schutz and Derwing’s Summarizations for Profile of Communication Needs:

  • (a) Personal Information (f) dialects

  • (b) purpose (g) target level

  • (c) setting (h) events

  • (d) interactional variables (i) key

  • (e) communicative way


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Needs analysis in ESP

Profile of Communication Needs:

Ex: waiter/waitress

1.personal: who the employees are, their ages , education; background

2.purpose: the types of communicative skills the clients need to develop

3.setting: restaurant

4.Interactional variables: waiter/waitress to customer

5. Medium,mode,and channel: whether spoken or written; face to face

6.dialects:formal or casual styles

7.Target level: basic, intermediate, advanced level.

8.Anticpated communicated events: greeting,taking picture

9.key: politely, quietly


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Communicative language teaching

1. The Emergence of ESP

2. The Interval Between 1960s and 1970s

=>a replacement for structural situation and audio-lingual methods.

3. The Europe

=>Grammatical  Communicative


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Emergence of a curriculum approach in language teaching

Wilkins’s notional syllabus

(a) semantico-grammatical meaning:

e.g. point of time, duration, time relations, frequency, and sequence

(b) model meaning: modality, scale of certainty, scale of commitment

(c) communicative function: request, complaints, apologies, suggestion


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Emergence of a curriculum approach in language teaching

Yalden’s Descriptions for Communicative Syllabuses

(1)Learner’s Purpose

(2)The Setting

(3) Learner’s Capacity

(4)Participation

(5)Language function

(6)Notion

(7)Skills

(8)Variety

(9)Grammar

(10)Lexicon


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Emergence of a curriculum approach in language teaching

  • A curriculum in a school context refers to the whole body of knowledge that children acquire in schools.

    Rodgers(1989)

  • Syllabi: the content to be covered by a given course, from only a small part of the total school program.

  • Curriculum: those activities in which children engage under the auspices of the school.


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Emergence of a curriculum approach in language teaching

  • Tyler(1949)---statements on the nature and process of curriculum development

    (1) educational purposes to be sought.

    (aims and objectives)

    (2) educational experiences to be provided.

    (content)

    (3) educational experiences to be organized. (organization)

    (4)educational experience to be attained (evaluation)


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Emergence of a curriculum approach in language teaching

The different opinions between Lawton and Tyler:

  • Lawton’s Statement—Teacher’s Behavior for Educational Objectives

  • Tyler’s Statement—Learner’s Behavior for Educational Objectives


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Emergence of a curriculum approach in language teaching

Nicholls and Nicholls's description in 1972s:

(a) The Careful Examination

(b)The Development and Trial Use

(c)The Assessment of the Extent

(d)The Final Element

(e)The Adoption in 1980s


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Emergence of a curriculum approach in language teaching

The Focuses on the Curriculum Development:

  • Needs Analysis

  • Situational Analysis

  • Learning Outcome

  • Course Organization

  • Selecting Teaching Material

  • Preparing Teaching Material

  • Providing for Effective Teaching

  • Evaluation


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Emergence of a curriculum approach in language teaching

Clark’s Statement on the Curriculum Development:

  • The Review of Principles

  • The Reworking of Syllabuses

  • The Review of Strategies

  • Embodying Appropriate Learning Experiences

  • The Review of Assessment Designed

  • The Review of Classroom Schemes

  • The Review and Creation of Strategies Designed

  • The Further Research

  • The Review or Devising on In-service Education Designed


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