Rainfall Pattern at
Sponsored Links
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
1 / 29

Rainfall Pattern at Chakwal PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Rainfall Pattern at Chakwal. Role of Soil Moisture in Fertilizer Use Efficiency for Rainfed Areas-A Review. Over 70% rain occurs during monsoon (July-August) Rabi (winter) crops are sown on stored soil moisture of rains during monsoon. BARI, Chakwal : Established 1979

Download Presentation

Rainfall Pattern at Chakwal

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript

Rainfall Pattern at Chakwal

Role of Soil Moisture in Fertilizer Use Efficiency for Rainfed Areas-A Review

Over 70% rain occurs during monsoon (July-August)

Rabi (winter) crops are sown on stored soil moisture of rains during monsoon

  • BARI, Chakwal:

  • Established 1979

  • Longitude72O

    • Latitude32O

    • Altitude 575 m

  • TOTAL AREA 89 ha


Dr. AbidSubhani

[email protected]



  • Green water (water contained in the soil)is a key factor in rainfed agriculture

  • Rainfed agriculture covers 80 per cent of the world’s agricultural area and contributes two-third of global food production

  • Adequate soil moisture leads to higher yields

  • Unreliable/insufficient rainfall is a major limiting factor for agricultural productivity in rainfed areas

  • Soil moisture plays a significant role in nutrient absorption/uptake by the plant

  • Major constraints of low Agric. Productivity in Rainfed areas:

    • low and erratic rainfall

    • (ii) soil erosion (loss of top fertile soil and moisture)

    • (iii) small and fragmented land holdings

    • (iv) low agricultural inputs

  • Possible approaches to increase the agric. Production

    • By bringing more area under cultivation (horizontal expansion)

    • Increasing the yield per hectare (vertical expansion).

    • There is vast scope for horizontal and vertical expansions by increasing the water productivity and FUE.

Rainfed Areas of Punjab Province


Attock Rawalpindi



Parts of:

Sialkot NarowalGujrat



Cultivated Area of Punjab 11.8 Mha

Irrigated cultivated Area 8.7 Mha

Rainfed cultivated area 3.1 Mha

Rainfall in rainfed areas

Rainfall Pattern at Chakwal

Rainfall (mm)

Almost 70% rain occur during Monsoon; Rabi crops are sown on stored soil moisture of rains received during Monsoon


Monthly rainfall during Rabi (2007-2011) at Chakwal

Size of farms in Punjabrainfed tract

Contribution of Punjab Barani tract

(Area wise: 2009-10)

Contribution of Punjab Barani tract

(Production wise: 2009-10)

Use of NPK (kg/ha) in different areas of Punjab and NWFP during 2000-01

Source: Nisar and Rashid, 2003

Fertilizer Use Efficiency (FUE)

FUE: The amount of produce increased by application of one unit of nutrient /fertilizer (Agronomist)

FUE: Is the percent recovery of the applied nutrient in the harvested portion of crop (Soil Scientist)

FUE: Rupees returned for each rupee spent on fertilizer (Economist)

Source: Nisar and Rashid, 2003

Fertilizer Use Efficiency (FUE)/%Recovery

Nitrogen:Utilization of applied N ranges from 40% in flooded (lowland) rice to about 50-60% in irrigated upland crops.

Phosphorus: Only about 10-25% of the applied P is utilized by the first crop, with residual P being partly available over a period of time to succeeding crops.

Potassium: Utilization efficiency of applied K is reported fairly high, about 70%.

Source: Nisar and Rashid, 2003

Role of water in the use of fertilizers

  • Availability of soil moisture is an important determinant of fertilizer use in the semi-arid areas

  • Availability of soil moisture is essential for fertilizer breakup in ionic forms, their movement in the soil and nutrient absorption/uptake & use

  • Efficient use of nutrients after uptake depends on continuous supply of moisture

  • It provide substrate for different physiological reactions/functions in plant cell like photosynthesis.

  • Water serves as transport agent for nutrients and products of plant metabolism

Factors AffectingFertilizer Efficiency

*Reduction in %

10-25* Poor Seedbed preparation

5-10*Improper Fertilizer Placement

5-20* Improper Seeding

10-20*Inadequate Irrigation/moisture

Sources of Reduction

in fertilizer efficiency

20-40*Delay in Sowing

15-50*Weed Infestation

5-50*Insect Attack

20-40*Inappropriate Crop Variety

10-25*Inadequate Plant Population

20-50*Imbalanced fertilizer application

Source:FAO Fertilizer Plant Nutr. Bulletin 2, 1981

Fertilizer response of irrigated and rainfed wheat in Pakistan

Fertilizer Rates kg/ha


1. 0 - 0 - 0 0 -0- 0

2. 56 - 56 - 0 30-0-0

3. 112- 62- 0 30-30-0

4. 112-112-0 60-30-0

5. 168-112 -0 60-60-0

6. 168-112-62 60-60-30

Fertilizer rates (kg/ha)

From: Nisar and Rashid, 2003

Grain Yield of Wheat After Kharif Crops (2004-09) at BARI, Chakwal

393 mm

255 mm

257 mm

Low yields are due to poor germination & frost damage

104 mm

158 mm

Response of rainfed wheat to nitrogen on soils having different stored moisture (M1, M2, M3)

M3= 32cm

M1= 19cm

  • Source: Meelu et al., 1976

Effect of moisture conservation practices on wheat yield

Source: Fertilizer Use in Dryland Farming, Booklet No. 43, Manures & Fertilizers: MFS - 13

A Study Case

Title: Optimal Fertilizer Requirement of Rainfed sunflower Based on Varying Soil Moisture stress indices on semi-arid Vertisols of india

Methodology: (1999-2004)

Dates of Sowing (DOS):

D1=28th Standard meteorological week (SMW) (9-15 July)

D2= 30th SMW (23-29 July); D3= 32nd SMW (6-12 Aug.)

D4= 34th SMW (21-26 Aug.)

Moisture Conservation Methods (MC):

M1= Ridges and furrows

M2= Skip row with furrow

M3= Flat bed

Levels of N & P Fertilizers:

F1= 40-20; F2= 50-25; F3= 60-30 kg NP/ha

MSI= Crop soil Moisture Stress Index

Based on daily rainfall (RF), daily runoff MSI were measured for each combination of DOS and MC method in each season (ranged 0.15 to 0.75)

Source:MaruthiSankar, G. R. et al. 2008 (Helia: 31: 137-154)

Ready reckon of optimum “N” fertilizer doses (Kg/ha)at varying levels of soil moisture stress index

# indicates calibration not possible due to non-diminishing response of nutrient

Ready reckon of optimum “P” fertilizer doses (Kg/ha) at varying levels of soil moisture stress index

# indicates calibration not possible due to non-diminishing response of nutrient

Fertilizer adjustment equations via crop season moisture stress index

FN= Fertilizer nitrogen

FP= Fertilizer phosphorus

# indicates calibration not possible due to non-diminishing response of a nutrient

Optimal fertilizer doses for varying levels of available soil moisture

  • Based on multiple regression models, fertilizer adjustment equations of N and P were derived under different models having a +ive linear coefficient, a –ive quadratic coefficient for a fertilizer variable along with a negative interaction coefficient for fertilizer X soil moisture stress index.

  • An increasing response at the initial level and diminishing returns at higher levels of fertilizer application was indicated

  • The negative interaction was predicted for a higher fertilizer dose at low soil moisture stress index and vice versa for better response of the crop.

Current constraints on yield and on the use of fertilizer

  • Availability of soil moisture is an important determinant of fertilizer use in the semi-arid areas

  • Lack of proper extension in the popularization of fertilizer use and the knowledge of the farmer is a major constraint

  • Fertilizer price and credit are important institutional factors

  • Regional and temporal differences in seasonal conditions, occurrence of pests and diseases, availability of fertilizer, market and fertilizer distribution network, etc., are important determinants of differences in fertilizer use

  • Lack of suitable management practices that make the best use of applied fertilizer

Improvement of Fertilizer Use Efficiency

The objective behind the use of fertilizer in dryland condition should be to make maximum amount of fertilizer nutrient available to the plant within the existing low levels of soil moisture. Certain pointsmust be kept in mind in order to achieve this objective:

  • Use of organic matter

  • Placement of fertilizers

  • Spray applications

  • Balanced use of fertilizers

  • Use of P mixed with FYM

  • Use of amendments (like gypsum in alkali soil)

  • Alteration in time of fertilizer application (based on moisture availability)

  • Water conservation practices

  • Other farming practices (e.g. Split N in rainy season; proper crop rotation)

  • Mulching

Suggestions for Improvement in Model

  • Commendable job has been done to design a model to predict fertilizer doses for all districts of Punjab with the help of some basic soil fertility status (O.M, available P, desired yield target) knowledge by scientists of U. A. F

  • The areas where proper irrigation practices are available, the moisture level differences are minimum, the prediction of fertilizer is simple and dependent soil type and availability of different nutrients and organic matter in the soil which helps to estimate nutrient deficiencies to be supplemented by different fertilizers with optimum dose to achieve desired yield target.

  • This ideal situation does not exist under rainfed agriculture especially during winter/rabi season as fertilizer efficiency is directly related to moisture availability in the soil.

  • It is needed to study the role/effect of soil moisture on fertilizer use efficiency under different rainfall (low, medium, high) areas to predict fertilizer doses.

  • Therefore, it is suggested that a collaborative study/Project may be designed between main stakeholders like UAF; Soil Fertility Directorate; SAWCRI, Chakwal; UAAR and BARI, Chakwal etc. to reach at any consolidated conclusions


  • Login