Personality
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Personality. Introductory Issues. Personality Defined.

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Personality

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Personality

Personality

IntroductoryIssues


Personality defined

Personality Defined

  • Personality is the set of psychological traits and mechanisms within the individual that is organized and relatively enduring and that influences his or her interactions with, and adaptations to, the environment (including the intrapsychic, physical, and social environment).


Personality defined1

Personality Defined

  • Personality is the set ofpsychological traits and mechanisms within the individual that is organized and relatively enduring and that influences his or her interactions with, and adaptations to, the environment (including the intrapsychic, physical, and social environment).


Personality

Personality Defined

  • Personality is the set of psychological traits and mechanisms within the individual that is organized and relatively enduring and that influences his or her interactions with, and adaptations to, the environment (including the intrapsychic, physical, and social environment).


Personality

Personality Defined

  • Personality is the set of psychological traits and mechanisms within the individual that is organized and relatively enduring and that influences his or her interactions with, and adaptations to, the environment (including the intrapsychic, physical, and social environment).


Personality

Personality Defined

  • Personality is the set of psychological traits and mechanisms within the individual that is organized and relatively enduring and that influence his or her interactions with, and adaptations to, the environment (including the intrapsychic, physical, and social environment).


Personality

Personality Defined

  • Personality is the set of psychological traits and mechanisms within the individual that is organized and relatively enduring and that influences his or her interactions with, and adaptations to, the environment (including the intrapsychic, physical, and social environment).


Personality

Personality Defined

  • Personality is the set of psychological traits and mechanisms within the individual that is organized and relatively enduring and that influences his or her interactions with, and adaptations to, the environment (including the intrapsychic, physical, and social environment).


Personality

Personality Defined

  • Personality is the set of psychological traits and mechanisms within the individual that is organized and relatively enduring and that influences his or her interactions with, and adaptations to, the environment (including the intrapsychic, physical, and social environment).


Personality

Personality Defined

  • Personality is the set of psychological traits and mechanisms within the individual that is organized and relatively enduring and that influences his or her interactions with, and adaptations to, the environment(including the intrapsychic, physical, and social environment).


Personality

3 Levels of Personality Analysis

Every human being is…

…like all othersHuman nature level

…like some othersIndividual/Group Differences

…like no othersIndividual Uniqueness Level


Personality

Human Nature Level

  • The traits and mechanisms of personality that are typical of our species and are possessed by everyone or nearly everyone


Personality

Individual and

Group Differences Level

  • Ways in which each person is like

  • some other people

Risk takers

Worriers


Personality

Individual Uniqueness Level

  • Every individual has personal and unique qualities not shared by any other person in the world


Current issues in personality

Current Issues in Personality


Current issues in personality1

Current Issues in Personality

Grand Theories of Personality

vs.

Contemporary Research in Personality


Current issues in personality2

Current Issues in Personality

  • Appropriate Units of Personality

    • Traits

    • Motives

    • Cognitions

    • Which traits, motives, cognitions, etc.


Current issues in personality3

Current Issues in Personality

  • Nomothetic: scientific, analytic, common units

    vs.

  • Idiographic: individual level, study individual lives in depth


Current issues in personality4

Current Issues in Personality

  • Are people consistent over situations?

  • Are people stable over time?


Bridging the fissure the notion of domains of knowledge

Bridging the Fissure: The Notion of Domains of Knowledge

  • One way to make sense of the vast amount of research in many different areas of personality is to appreciate that this research occurs along several key domains of knowledge


Personality

Six Domains of Knowledge

Intrapsychic

Dispositional

Cognitive-Experiential

Social and Cultural

Biological

Adjustment


Intrapsychic domain

Intrapsychic Domain

  • Deals with mental mechanisms of personality, many of which operate outside conscious awareness

  • Classic and modern versions of Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis, including work on repression, denial, projection, and motives for power, achievement, and affiliation


Dispositional domain

Dispositional Domain

  • Deals with ways in which individuals differ from one another and, therefore, cuts across all other domains

  • Focus on number and nature of fundamental dispositions


Cognitive experiential domain

Cognitive-Experiential Domain

  • Focuses on cognition and subjective experience, such as conscious thoughts, feelings, beliefs, and desires about oneself and others

    • Self and self-concept

    • Goals we set and strive to meet

    • Emotional experiences, in general and over time


Social and cultural domain

Social and Cultural Domain

  • Assumption that personality affects, and is affected by, cultural and social contexts

  • Much work on cultural differences between groups (e.g., in social acceptability of aggression)


Biological domain

Biological Domain

  • Core assumption of biological approaches to personality is that humans are collections of biological systems, and these systems provide building blocks for behavior, thought, and emotion

  • Behavioral genetics of personality

  • Psychophysiology of personality

  • Evolutionary personality psychology


Adjustment domain

Adjustment Domain

  • Personality plays key role in how we cope, adapt, and adjust to events in daily life

  • Personality linked with important health outcomes and problems in coping and adjustment


Summary

Summary

  • Theories serve as a guide for researchers

  • Theories organize known findings

  • Theories allow us to make predictions

  • Theories are more than just beliefs

  • Theory and research are bound together


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