Lecture # 8 Rise of Muslim Civilization Presented by Abul Kalam Azad Senior Lecturer in Sociology, Centre for GED Northern University Bangladesh E-mail: [email protected] Persia The Persian State:
The Persian State:
A revived Persian Empire arose in the territory to the east of the Byzantine Empire in the 3rd century of the Christian Era.
Recent discoveries led Some Scholars to Believe That Persia under the Sassanids(226-641) reached one of the greatest civilizations before the advent of modern times.
Unfortunately, the Persians spent much of their time and energy in fighting.
In the last century of the Sassanid rule, there was much constant warfare with Byzantinium that it led to the ultimate downfall of the kingdom.
Persian civilization of this period is comparatively unknown.
Not much of the culture passed into the Byzantine Empire because the two countries were constantly at war and because the land was almost completely enveloped by the Turks.
Persian religion was a form of Zoroastrianism. Most of the followers of the faith were driven out by the Turks.
The persees of India- the sole survivors of Zoroastrianism- are among the wealthiest and best educated people in the territory.
In the ancient Persian capital, Ctesiphon, there are remains of some of the buildings that belongs to the Sassanid monarchy.
The most famous is a high hall 163 feet long, 86 feet wide and 95 feet high.
Arabia is a peninsula connected with both Africa and Asia but geographically somewhat isolated.
Although the great empires of the antiquity surrounded it, there were some penetrations into the interior.
Much of the territories which is approximately one-third the size of the US, is high, rocky, and barren with only a few fertile regions dotted here and there in the valleys of small streams or around oases.
In search of water and grass for their cattle, herdsmen travel from one oasis to another, taking their belongings with them.
There are a numbers of small cities along the coastline, but most of the population is migratory.
The Arabs who were Semitic in their cultural background, loved warfare and were sought by the Persian and Byzantine states to serve in their armies. Armed conflict among the different tribes was common; plundering the borderland cities and robbing caravans were accepted as legitimate practices.
The people were mystics, inclined to worship nature gods.
In the typical Arab there was a prevailing individualism and much self reliance.
He was not inclined to submit to centralized organizations- political, economic, or social.
In spite of the unsettled state of their existence and their wild nomadic life, these people were progressive in many ways.
The Arabs lacked the centralized organization that is characteristic of civilized society.
When mention is made of this Arabian or Mohammedan empire, this does not imply the existence of a state with a well defined boundary, but applies, instead, to many groups of people of varying culture spread over broad territories and bound together by a common devotion to the religious faith.
At certain seasons of the year, the tribes endeavored to make pilgrimages to such favored spots as Mecca, where the Kaaba, a sanctuary for the famous Black Stones, was a center of veneration.
Fighting stopped for four months in each year, in order that faithful might congregate at Mecca.
The people took advantage of this meeting to exchange wares and bits of learning that they had gathered in their travels.
Poets recited their verses and a general celebration was held, after which each group went its own way.
The central authority, insofar as there was any central authority, was in the hands of caliph, the successor of Mohammedan and the Representative of God on earth.
He was both a temporal ruler and a religious leader. To question his authority was considered a revolt against Allah.
He was the supreme power acting in the common interest. The Ommiad dynasty(661-750) made Damascus the capital; but the succeeding dynasty(the Abbassds) chose Baghdad, where they built a beautiful palace, called the golden Gate, and ruled in Oriental splendor and despotism.
The city became a thriving and intellectual center. The tendency after the 8th century was to establish partly independent caliphs, with very little centralized control.
Caliphates were established in Cordova in Spain, at Cairo in Egypt and at Baghdad in Iraq.
The caliph ruled without a constitution and in the most high-handed and dictatorial fashion.
He was supposed to protect the faith and to advance the power of Islam, and to promote the welfare of his people.
The people had very little part in the government, but many of the tribes were far enough to be practically independent.
Economic Life: tendency after the 8
The Arabs were a commercial people , almost by instinct.
The prophet Mohammad was a merchant and the Koran showed a marked partiality to tradesmen.
There continent Africa, Asia and Europe-were connected through the efforts of Arabian merchants; and the Arabic language was the language of commerce.
Connections between trade centers were established through couriers.
Some of the messengers traveled on horseback as far as 75 miles in three days.
Economic Life (cont’d): tendency after the 8
The agriculturists of that time were the Arabs, who practiced the crop rotation, used fertilizer and established irrigation projects. They introduced into Europe spinach, asparagus, strawberries, lemons, dates, cotton, rice, sugarcane and pomegranates. Their manufactured products were armor, steel weapons, glassware, rosewater, leather goods, textiles and porcelain.
Art: tendency after the 8
The Muslims failed to develop a first class art, at least until they came into contact with other people whose art they borrowed as a stock upon which to graft some of their ideas.
For that reason, their art was not inform.Besides the Koran imposed a limitation prohibiting the representation of human figures.
Muslim decorations consistence mainly intricate carved in wood and metals.
The people admire color, and the wealthy attired themselves richly and decorated their homes with fine silks, costly hangings and beautiful rags.
Architecture: tendency after the 8
Mosques and palaces were the chief architectural works of the Mohammedans.
The sanctuary and the portal were elaborately decorated with plaster, wood carving, marble inlay, and colored glass.
Frequently wood was inlaid with ivory and ebony. Geometric patterns.
Made up of small polygons, carved in a floral
designs and finished with a beading, were the
decorative motifs most extensively followed.
Architecture (cont’d): tendency after the 8
The artists obtained color and brilliance by
painting the wood carving and by using stain
glass windows and colored marbles.
The Alhambra in Granada stands as a monument
to the riches of oriental color and design.
It is built around an open court, overlooking which
are rooms and balconies.
The interior walls of the rooms are covered with bright color design in blue, red, yellow and gold.
Religious culture: tendency after the 8
The Arabian desert was the mother of religions.
The cult of Isthar, Jufaism, Christianity and countless others of lesser importance sprang up here.
Belief in the mystical power of a Black Rock enshrined in the Kaaba, although there were separated and isolated during the remainder of the time.
There were four month in each year during which they forget their warfare and while they were on their way to Mecca, they were as safe from molestation as they would have been in any country in the world.
Foundation of Islam: tendency after the 8
The founder of Islam Mohammad (sm) born in Mecca in 570 ca.
He had no unusual talents and some of his critics believe that he was subject to epileptic fits, in which condition he is reputed by his followers to have made his contacts with god.
He married a rich widow, named Khadija, whose wealth and influence in Mecca were great assets. Many of his teachings were not new but were a adapted from Arabic folklore.
His conception of God was that of the old testament. He himself declared to his followers was the latest and greatest of all the prophets.He assumed the title of Praised One
Foundation of Islam (cont’d): tendency after the 8
The student of religion should be impressed by the personality of Mohammad and it should be remembered that the quality of Islam and the Personality of Mohammad (sm) are quite different things from others.
Prophet Mohammad (sm) was sent to the earth as the messenger by Allah.
He was called Al Amin by the people of Arab that period when the people of Arab were in the dark age.
Foundation of Islam (cont’d): tendency after the 8
He was gotten the Nobuat at the age of 40.
Holy Koran was given by Allah to the people on the earth through Mohammad (sm) both during the life in Mecca and Madina.
The is the main foundation of the followers of Islam.
He invited the people to Islam that there is no almighty but Allah and He was the prophet/messenger.
Character of Islam: tendency after the 8
ISLAM means fully surrender to Allah. The holy Koran is the constitution for the followers of Islam. Prophet Moahammad (sm) is their leader.
There are five pillars of Islam. These are Kalama, Salaat, Saom, Hazz and Zakat.
The holy Koran that is the constitution of Islam is not only a religious book but also the code of life for the people.
It has given a balanced among the different systems in the society. The right among the people of the society, the economic and political system are most important among the different systems.
Allah has created us for not other purposes but to pray To Allah. He is single one.
Literature: tendency after the 8
Much of the literature of the Arabs was not until after it had passed from mouth to mouth for many generations.
They took great pride in reciting their poems and had no troubles to find out enthusiastic listeners.
Two very necessary qualities for the good production were theirs- a clear and concise way of expressing themselves and vivid imagination.
Much of their literature idealized the people as fierce, bold, hospitable and truthful.
Their histories and biographies were numerous. A Biographical Dictionary was published in 13th century, contains accountants of 865 important Mohammedans.
Literature (cont’d): tendency after the 8
Poetry was a favorite form of literary expression. Omar Khayam was the author of Rubaiyat, the best known of the Muslim poems.
Gulistan and the Bustan, mythical and Philosophical odes, were written by Sheikh Saadi.
In prose the Arabian Nights is the most important work all over the world. Almost everyone has read at least parts of that great tale and has been entertained by it.
Within it included a great variety of material: proverb, adventure and fables, covering territory all the way from China to western Europe.
Science: tendency after the 8
One of the most important things that the Muslims did when
they conquered a territory was to build a mosque.
To this building they frequently attached a madrasa the main purpose of which was to teach the people the holy Koran.
Science, literature and art were ultimately added to the list of subjects taught.
The Muslims built Universities and libraries in Spain.
Science (cont’d): tendency after the 8
The University of Saleno was one of the first to teach the medicine.
Major operations were performed and the insane
were treated scientifically.
The Muslim scientists discovered alcohol, potash, nitrate of silver, nitric and
Sulphuric acids.They had learned the secrets of dyeing and
discovered a new process for making paper. They knew also
how to grafts trees and plants so as to produce new varieties.
Muslim civilization was composite. It gathered ideas from the waning civilizations of India, Byzantium, Persia and Egypt.
The Muslims continued the work begun in these earlier cultures and passed it on to Western people to serve as a part of the foundation of the Renaissance.
Medicine, astronomy, and the art of the West depended much upon Arabic knowledge.
Thomas Aquinas whose work served as a bridge between the Medieval and the Modern ages was influenced greatly by the Arabs.
The dark age is really a convenient term used to pass over the period in which Byzantine and Arabic civilization outshone that of the west.