Chapter 9
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Chapter 9. Understanding Drugs and Medicines. Drugs. Drug: any substance that causes a change in a person’s physical or psychological state Some drugs are medicines… a drug that is used to cure, prevent, or treat illness or discomfort. What is the FDA?.

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Chapter 9

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Chapter 9

Chapter 9

Understanding Drugs and Medicines


Drugs

Drugs

Drug: any substance that causes a change in a person’s physical or psychological state

Some drugs are medicines…

a drug that is used to cure, prevent, or treat illness or discomfort


What is the fda

What is the FDA?

FDA – Food and Drug Administration: it is a government agency created to control the safety of food, drugs, and cosmentics


Path to addiction

Path To Addiction

Drug Use Tolerance Dependence Addiction


Path to addiction1

Path To Addiction

Drug Use – activates the brain reward system (pleasure system)

Tolerance – develops after repeated drug used; user finds that it takes more of a drug to feel the same effect

Dependence – user becomes uncomfortable and has withdrawals when trying to stop

  • Physical Dependence – body relies on a given drug to function normally

  • Psychological Dependence – emotionally or mentally needing a drug to function normally

    Addiction – drug user has lost control of his or her drug-taking habit; use because they feel they have to, not because they want to


Chapter 9

Withdrawal

Uncomfortable physical and psychological symptoms produced when a physically dependent drug user stops using drugs


Chapter 9

QUICK REVIEW1.) What is tolerance?

2.) What is the difference between physical dependence and psychological dependence?

3.) What are the stages in the path to addiction?


Chapter 9

QUICK REVIEW1.) What is tolerance?

takes more of the same drug to get the same effects2.) What is the difference between physical dependence and psychological dependence?

Physical-body relies on drug to function normally

Psychological-emotionally/mentally needing a drug to function normally3.) What are the stages in the path to addiction?

Drug Use Tolerance Dependence Addiction

Friedman, David P., Curtis C. Stine, and Shannon Whalen. Lifetime Health. Orlando, [Fla.: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 2009. Print.


Chapter 10

Chapter 10

Alcohol


Alcohol

Alcohol

Alcohol is a drug found in beer, wine, and liquor that causes intoxication

Alcohol is a drug because it changes a persons physical, mental, and emotional state (intoxication).


Chapter 9

Many people think that beer is safer than liquor because it not as strong. This is NOT true. One beer is the same amount of alcohol as one glass of wine or one shot of vodka.


Myth vs reality

Myth vs. Reality

Myth: Drinking will make me look more mature.

Reality: Stumbling around and acting silly will not make you look more mature.

Myth: If alcohol was that dangerous , it would be illegal for adults.

Reality: Alcohol is dangerous for both adults and teens.

Myth: “I’ve had a few beers. I can drink some coffee before I drive, and I’ll be fine.”

Reality: Coffee can make you feel awake, but it can’t make you sober. Only time can do that.

Myth: Parties make me nervous so I need alcohol to loosen up.

Reality: When people loosen up with alcohol, they often say and do things they will later regret.


Facts

FACTS

In the United States, alcohol is illegal for anyone under the age of 21.

Zero Tolerance: it is illegal for people under the age of 21 to drive with any amount of alcohol in their systems

Blood Alcohol Content (B.A.C.)

-amount of alcohol in a person’s blood expressed as a percentage

.4 to .5 can result in Death

.08 is the legal limit for driving under the influence

.02 can start to affect a persons ability to drive


Chapter 9

What is the number one cause of death among teens?

a. Diseases

b. Suicide

c. Homicide

d. Motor vehicle accidents


Chapter 9

Organizations that are fighting against driving while intoxicated:

____________________________

Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD)

Students Against Destructive Decisions (SADD) – school based organization


Short term effects

Short-Term Effects

Short term effects depend on several factors…

  • Amount of alcohol consumed

  • Amount of food in person’s stomach

  • Genetic factors

  • Medications a person may be taking

  • Gender & Size

    **When alcohol is consumed, it is quickly absorbed into the blood stream.


Short term effects1

Short-Term Effects

  • Irritates mouth, throat, esophagus and stomach (nausea and vomiting)

  • Makes the heart and liver work harder.

  • Reduced reaction time

  • Makes body lose heat

  • Causes dehydration (breaking down alcohol requires water)

  • Loss of judgment and self-control

  • Memory Loss/Blackout

  • Death


Long term effects

Long-Term Effects

  • Permanent damage to the body – enlarged heart, high blood pressure, and irregular heartbeat

  • Liver – cirrhosis (disease that replaces healthy liver tissue with scar tissue) and hepatitis

  • Brain damage – shrunken brain and dead brain cells


Chapter 9

WHAT IS ALCOHOLISM??? _

Alcohol Abuse: drinking too much alcohol, drinking it too often, or drinking it at inappropriate times

Alcoholism: disease that causes a person to lose control of his or her drinking behavior

Binge Drinking: Defined as having 5 or more drinks in one sitting.


Chapter 9

Alcoholism Develops in STAGES (very similar to addiction):

  • Problem Drinking – experimentation and social drinking

  • Tolerance – more alcohol needed to get the same effects

  • Dependence – body needs alcohol to function normally

  • Alcoholism – addicted to alcohol


Chapter 9

Risk Factors for Alcoholism

  • Age – most important risk factor

    • Teens who start drinking before age 15 are four times more likely to become alcoholics than people who wait until they are 21.

    • Teens developing brains are vulnerable to the effects of alcohol.

  • Social Environment – peer pressure, persuasive advertising, and desire to fit in (controllable)

  • Genetics – alcoholism tends to run in families


  • Chapter 9

    Warning Signs of Alcoholism

    • Professional and personal relationship problems

    • Drinking to deal with emotions (depressed)

    • Changing friends, habits, and interests

    • Drinking alone and to get drunk

    • Defensive about drinking


    Chapter 9

    Alcoholism and the Family

    • Guilty feelings, violence, unpredictable behavior, neglect, protecting the alcoholic, and ignoring one’s own needs to take care of the addict

      Alcoholism and Society

    • Increased violence, crimes, injuries, loss of productivity due to alcohol-related illness (get sick a lot more often)


    Fetal alcohol syndrome

    Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (F.A.S.) - a set of physical and mental defects that affect a fetus that has been exposed to alcohol because of the mother’s consumption of alcohol during pregnancy. Some babies have physical abnormalities and mental retardation. (F.A.S. is the single more preventable cause of mental retardation in the United States.)

    You don’t want to see pictures.


    Chapter 9

    TREATMENT

    A variety of options:

    Inpatient, outpatient, counseling, and support groups

    AN ONGOING PROCESS

    • Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) – most widely used program; 12 steps

    • Al-Anon – help family members talk about and share advice about living with an alcoholic

    • Alateen – designed to help teenagers cope with living with an alcoholic

      **Local chapters of these organizations are in nearly every community. Look online or in phonebook to find information about local chapters


    Chapter 9

    QUICK REVIEW1.) Alcohol is considered a drug because…2.) What is the law that makes it illegal for anyone under 21 to drive with any alcohol in his/her system?3.) Which of the following is a controllable risk factor for alcoholism?

    genes, environment, or age


    Chapter 9

    QUICK REVIEW1.) Alcohol is considered a drug because…

    it causes a change in a person’s physical and emotional state2.) What is the law that makes it illegal for anyone under 21 to drive with any alcohol in his/her system?

    zero tolerance 3.) Which of the following is a controllable risk factor for alcoholism?

    environment

    Friedman, David P., Curtis C. Stine, and Shannon Whalen. Lifetime Health. Orlando, [Fla.: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 2009. Print.


    Chapter 11

    Chapter 11

    Tobacco


    Chapter 9

    QUICK REVIEW1.) What are some short-term effects of alcohol?

    2.) What are the stages of alcoholism?


    Chapter 9

    QUICK REVIEW1.) What are some short-term effects of alcohol?

    nausea, vomiting, heart/liver work harder, reduced reaction time, lost body heat, dehydration, loss of judgment/self-control, memory loss/blackout, death

    2.) What are the stages of alcoholism?

    problem drinking tolerance dependence alcoholism


    Tobacco

    Tobacco

    Types of tobacco products:

    1. Cigarettes (including herbal like cloves, bidis, and kreteks)

    2.Chewing Tobacco

    3. Snuff (dip)

    4. Pipe tobacco

    5. Cigars

    All 5 products contain the highly addictive drug

    NICOTINE. There is NO safe form of tobacco.


    Facts1

    FACTS

    The most avoidable cause of death in the United States is considered to be TOBACCO USE.

    A carcinogen is a chemical agent that is known to cause cancer. There are at least 40 carcinogens in cigarettes smoke.

    Cigarette smoke also contains carbon monoxide; a gas that blocks oxygen from getting into the bloodstream.

    Tar is a sticky black substance in tobacco that coats the inside of airways.


    Short term effects of tobacco

    Short-Term Effects of Tobacco

    • Increase heart rate and blood pressure

    • Stimulate brain reward system

    • Increase breathing rate

    • Stimulate vomit reflex

    • Increase blood sugar levels

    • Causes bad breathe and clothes to stink

      **Know these for the test


    Long term effects of tobacco

    Long-Term Effects of Tobacco

    • Addiction

    • Bronchitis

      • Cigarette smoke paralyzes and kills cilia.

    • Emphysema- respiratory disease in which air can not move in and out of lungs

      • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a combination of chronic bronchitis and emphysema

    • Lung Cancer- kills more people than any other form of cancer

    • Gum disease, tooth decay, stained teeth

    • Heart attacks

    • Elastic/wrinkled skin


    Effects of smoke on nonsmokers

    Effects of Smoke on Nonsmokers

    • Sidestream smoke – smoke that escapes from the tip of a cigarette, cigar, or pipe; can be as much as 50% of the smoke from a cigarette

    • Secondhand smoke – combination of exhaled mainstream smoke (smoke inhaled by the smoker) and sidestream smoke; inhaled by anyone near the smoker


    Tobacco and pregnancy

    Tobacco and Pregnancy

    • Risks of smoking while pregnant:

      • Baby’s growth rate slows resulting in low birth weight

      • Miscarriage or Premature birth

      • Increases babies risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)

      • Increased risk that the person and their baby will develop respiratory illnesses

      • Developmental difficulties


    Why do people use tobacco

    WHY do people use tobacco???

    • Family and friends

    • Misconceptions about dangers of tobacco

    • Curiosity

    • Rebellion

    • Advertising

      • Directed at teens by using cartoon animals and attractive people and making it look cool and fun

    http://kcox411.blogspot.com/


    Refusing tobacco

    REFUSING Tobacco

    It is NOT always easy and it may be very difficult to resist under pressure.

    • Be honest – direct, but do not attack or put down the person

    • Give a Reason

    • Suggest an alternative


    Chapter 9

    QUICK REVIEW1.) What blocks the blood’s ability to carry oxygen?

    2.) What are the other names for herbal cigarettes?


    Chapter 9

    QUICK REVIEW1.) What blocks the blood’s ability to carry oxygen?

    carbon monoxide

    2.) What are the other names for herbal cigarettes?

    cloves, bidis, and kreteks

    Friedman, David P., Curtis C. Stine, and Shannon Whalen. Lifetime Health. Orlando, [Fla.: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 2009. Print.


    Chapter 12

    Chapter 12

    Illegal Drugs


    Chapter 9

    QUICK REVIEW1.) TRUE OR FALSE

    Using tobacco is a good method for coping and dealing with stress.

    2.) When you stop using tobacco, how long will it take for your senses of smell and taste to return?


    Chapter 9

    QUICK REVIEW1.) TRUE OR FALSE

    Using tobacco is a good method for coping and dealing with stress.

    FALSE

    2.) When you stop using tobacco, how long will it take for your senses of smell and taste to return?

    Within a few days


    Using illegal drugs is dangerous because

    Using illegal drugs is dangerous because…

    they can have dangerous and permanent effects on the body.

    they are a major factor in suicides, motor vehicle accidents, and crimes.

    you can become addicted to almost all illegal drugs.

    when drug use involves sharing needles, there is the risk of catching infectious diseases.

    overdose can result.

    they can result in risky sexual behavior leading to unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases.


    Why do people begin using drugs

    WHY do people begin using drugs?

    • Experiment

    • Escape from depression or boredom

    • Enjoyment of risk-taking behaviors

    • Belief that drugs solve personal, social, or medical problems

    • Peer pressure

    • Glamorization of drug use by the media

      **Teens are at a higher risk of using illegal drugs because of the pressures and changes associated with adolescence. They are also more likely to become addicted.


    Chapter 9

    COMMONLY ABUSED DRUGS


    Chapter 9

    COMMONLY ABUSED DRUGS CONTINUED


    Drug abuse treatment

    Drug Abuse Treatment

    • Patients should be monitored for continued drug use.

    • Mental illness should be treated at the same time as addiction.

    • Medications can be an important part of treatment.

    • Treatment does not need to be voluntary.

    • Treatment should offer multiple services, including, medical services, family counseling, job training, and legal services.

    • The longer the abuser stays in treatment, the more effective it is.


    Saying no to drugs

    Saying “No” to Drugs

    STAY AWAY FROM PEOPLE WHO USE DRUGS AND PLACES WHERE DRUGS WILL BE USED.

    1.) Say no firmly.

    2.) Buy yourself time (i.e. go to the bathroom and think about how you can get out of the situation)

    3.) Give good reasons why you choose not to do drugs.

    4.) State the consequences that could result.

    5.) Suggest an alternate activity.

    6.) Walk away.


    Chapter 9

    QUICK REVIEW1.) TRUE OR FALSE

    Extreme sleepiness results from repeated use of methamphetamine.

    2.)What changes in men can anabolic steroids cause?


    Chapter 9

    QUICK REVIEW1.) TRUE OR FALSE

    Extreme sleepiness results from repeated use of methamphetamine.

    FALSE – methamphetamine is a stimulant and can result in permanent kidney or liver damage

    2.) What changes in men can anabolic steroids cause?

    shrinking of testes, growth of breasts, baldness, infertility, acne

    Friedman, David P., Curtis C. Stine, and Shannon Whalen. Lifetime Health. Orlando, [Fla.: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 2009. Print.


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