Tour of the cell 1
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Tour of the Cell 1. Prokaryote bacteria cells. Types of cells. - no organelles. - organelles. Eukaryote animal cells. Eukaryote plant cells. Golgi. Golgi. mitochondria. mitochondria. chloroplast. chloroplast. ER. ER. Why organelles?. Specialized structures specialized functions

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Tour of the Cell 1

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Tour of the cell 1

Tour of the Cell 1


Types of cells

Prokaryotebacteria cells

Types of cells

- no organelles

- organelles

Eukaryoteanimal cells

Eukaryoteplant cells


Why organelles

Golgi

Golgi

mitochondria

mitochondria

chloroplast

chloroplast

ER

ER

Why organelles?

  • Specialized structures

    • specialized functions

      • cilia or flagella for locomotion

  • Containers

    • partition cell into compartments

    • create different local environments

      • separate pH, or concentration of materials

    • distinct & incompatible functions

      • lysosome & its digestive enzymes

  • Membranes as sites for chemical reactions

    • unique combinations of lipids & proteins

    • embedded enzymes & reaction centers

      • chloroplasts & mitochondria


Cells gotta work to live

Cells gotta work to live!

  • What jobs do cells have to do?

    • make proteins

      • proteins control everycell function

    • make energy

      • for daily life

      • for growth

    • make more cells

      • growth

      • repair

      • renewal


Building proteins

Building Proteins


Proteins do all the work

Proteins do all the work!

proteins

cells

DNA

Repeat after me…

Proteins do all the work!

organism


Cells functions

Cells functions

  • Building proteins

    • read DNA instructions

    • build proteins

    • process proteins

      • folding

      • modifying

        • removing amino acids

        • adding other molecules

          • e.g, making glycoproteinsfor cell membrane

    • address & transport proteins


Building proteins1

The Protein Assembly Line

Golgiapparatus

ribosome

ER

Building Proteins

  • Organelles involved

    • nucleus

    • ribosomes

    • endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

    • Golgi apparatus

    • vesicles

nucleus

vesicles


Nucleus

DNA

chromosome

histone protein

nuclear

pores

nuclear

pore

nucleolus

nuclear envelope

Nucleus

  • Function

    • protects DNA

  • Structure

    • nuclear envelope

      • double membrane

      • membrane fused in spots to create pores

        • allows large macromolecules to pass through

What kind of molecules need to pass through?


Tour of the cell 1

nuclear

membrane

DNA

mRNA

Nucleus

small

ribosomal

subunit

nuclear pore

mRNA

large

ribosomal

subunit

cytoplasm

1

production of mRNA from DNA in nucleus

2

mRNA travels from nucleus to ribosome in cytoplasm through nuclear pore


Nucleolus

large subunit

small

subunit

ribosome

Nucleolus

  • Function

    • ribosome production

      • build ribosome subunits from rRNA & proteins

      • exit through nuclear pores to cytoplasm & combine to form functional ribosomes

rRNA &

proteins

nucleolus


Ribosomes

large

subunit

small

subunit

0.08mm

Ribosomes

Rough

ER

Smooth

ER

Ribosomes

  • Function

    • protein production

  • Structure

    • rRNA & protein

    • 2 subunits combine


Types of ribosomes

Types of Ribosomes

  • Freeribosomes

    • suspended in cytosol

    • synthesize proteins that function in cytosol

  • Bound ribosomes

    • attached to endoplasmic reticulum

    • synthesize proteins for export or for membranes

membrane proteins


Endoplasmic reticulum

Endoplasmic Reticulum

  • Function

    • processes proteins

    • manufactures membranes

    • synthesis & hydrolysis of many compounds

  • Structure

    • membrane connected to nuclear envelope & extends throughout cell


Types of er

Types of ER

rough

smooth


Smooth er function

Smooth ER function

  • Membrane production

  • Many metabolic processes

    • synthesis

      • synthesize lipids

        • oils, phospholipids, steroids & sex hormones

    • hydrolysis

      • hydrolyze glycogen into glucose

        • in liver

      • detoxify drugs & poisons

        • in liver

        • ex. alcohol & barbiturates


Membrane factory

Membrane Factory

  • Build new membrane

    • synthesize phospholipids

      • builds membranes

    • ER membrane expands

      • bud off & transfer to other parts of cell that need membranes


Rough er function

Rough ER function

  • Produce proteins for export out of cell

    • protein secreting cells

    • packaged into transport vesicles for export

Which cellshave lot of rough ER?


Synthesizing proteins

cisternal

space

polypeptide

signal

sequence

ribosome

membrane of

endoplasmic reticulum

mRNA

cytoplasm

Synthesizing proteins

ribosome


Golgi apparatus

secretory

vesicles

transport vesicles

Golgi Apparatus

  • Function

    • finishes, sorts, tags & ships cell products

      • like “UPS shipping department”

    • ships products in vesicles

      • membrane sacs

      • “UPS trucks”

Which cellshave lots of Golgi?


Golgi apparatus1

Golgi Apparatus


Vesicle transport

protein

vesicle

budding

from rough

ER

migrating

transport

vesicle

fusion

of vesicle

with Golgi

apparatus

ribosome

Vesicle transport


Tour of the cell 1

TO:

TO:

TO:

endoplasmicreticulum

nucleus

proteinon its way!

DNA

RNA

vesicle

vesicle

ribosomes

TO:

protein

finishedprotein

Golgi apparatus

Making Proteins


Making proteins

nucleus

cell

membrane

nuclear pore

protein secreted

rough ER

vesicle

ribosome

proteins

smooth ER

transport

vesicle

Golgi

apparatus

cytoplasm

Putting it together…

Making proteins


Tour of the cell 1

Any Questions!!


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