Magnetism
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Magnetism. Ferromagnetic Materials Iron, Nickel, and Cobalt. Magnetic Domains. Magnetic Tape. The Earth’s Whimsical Magnetic Field. Magnets have Magnetic Fields. Moving electrons produce magnetic fields. Earth's Magnetic Field. Where does the field come from?.

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Where does the field come from
Where does the field come from?

The earth’s magnetic field is thought to be generated by fluid motions in the liquid, outer part of the earth’s core.


Diagram of movement
Diagram of Movement

  • The earth’s core has molten iron and nickel, which are good conductors.

  • Buoyancy forces force the fluid to rise.

  • The fluid cools at the Earth’s outer core.


Earth s magnetic field direction
Earth’s Magnetic Field Direction

Paleomagnetism refers to the orientation of the Earth's magnetic field as it is preserved in various magnetic iron bearing minerals throughout time.

The study of paleomagnetism has demonstrated that the Earth's magnetic field has changed over time.


Magnetic field and continental drift
Magnetic Field and Continental Drift

The magnetic poles are moving by about 10 km per year.



Example of Ocean Floor

Magnetic Anomalies


Decreasing field over the years
Decreasing Field Over the Years

The intensity of the magnetic field (inTesla) decreases more rapidly in recent years.


The magnetosphere
The Magnetosphere

The magnetic field lines generated in the mantle then spread to the surface of the earth and create the magnetosphere which protects the earth from radiation from the sun (solar wind).


The Earth's Magnetosphere

1) The solar wind is a stream of ionized gases that blows outward from the Sun at about 400 km/second.

2) The Earth's magnetic field shields it from much of the solar wind. When the solar wind encounters Earth's magnetic field it is deflected.

3) The magnetosphere represents a region of space dominated by the Earth's magnetic field in the sense that it largely prevents the solar wind from entering.


Van allen belts
Van Allen Belts

Some high energy charged particles from the solar wind leak into the magnetosphere and are the source of the charged particles trapped in magnetic field lines called the Van Allen belts.


Aurora borealis aurora australis
Aurora Borealis & Aurora Australis

When trapped charged particles in the Van Allen Belts react with atmospheric molecules they emit light.

This creates the appearance of luminous bands or streamers called auroras.



There is more to it than like poles repel and opposite poles attract. It has to do with electrical charge.


Oersted s discovery
Oersted’s attract. It has to do with electrical charge.discovery


Moving electrons create a magnetic field! attract. It has to do with electrical charge.


X attract. It has to do with electrical charge.


Field around a current carrying straight conductor
Field around a current carrying straight conductor attract. It has to do with electrical charge.

http://www.walter-fendt.de/ph14e/mfwire.htm


solenoid (or inductor) attract. It has to do with electrical charge.


Current carrying loop
Current carrying loop attract. It has to do with electrical charge.

http://webphysics.davidson.edu/physletprob/ch7_in_class/in_class7_2/enm7_2_5.html


An electromagnet attract. It has to do with electrical charge.


SIM attract. It has to do with electrical charge.

Magnetic fields that move across a wire create electricity!


Faraday and electromagnetic induction
Faraday and electromagnetic induction attract. It has to do with electrical charge.

http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/electromag/java/faraday2

/


An attract. It has to do with electrical charge.electric motor converts electricity to motion.


An attract. It has to do with electrical charge.electric generator converts motion to electricity.


The generator
The Generator attract. It has to do with electrical charge.

http://www.wvic.com/how-gen-works.htm





Sources
Sources

  • Bloomfield, How Things Work.

  • Krauskopf & Beiser, The Physical Universe. 10th ed.

  • Tillery, Physical Science.


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