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Chapter 5: Операційні системи. IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software v4.0. Chapter 5 Objectives. 5.1 Пояснення призначення операційної системи. 5.2 Опис і порівняння операційних систем з врахуванням їх призначення, обмежень і сумісності.

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Chapter 5: Операційні системи

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Chapter 5:

IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software v4.0


Chapter 5 Objectives

  • 5.1 .

  • 5.2 , .

  • 5.3 '.

  • 5.4 .

  • 5.5 .

  • 5.6 .

  • 5.7 .


() '.

  • , , Windows 2000 Windows XP.


  • ' () , c .

  • ' .

  • , .



  • . .

  • Plug-and-play (PNP technology) PNP- . , , '.


  • , .

  • ' , ' .

  • (, ).


  • .

  • : (CLI - Command-Line Interface ) (GUI - Graphical User Interface) .


  • '. , , , . , .


  • (API - Application Programming Interface ) , , , , , . API:- OpenGL(Open Graphics Library - ) ; - DirectX API, Microsoft Windows.


OpenGL(Open Graphics Library - )

  • OpenGL - . , '. , , , OpenGL .


DirectX

  • DirectX , , , . DirectX , .


DirectX ( , dxdiag ENTER.)

  • Direct3D. . Direct3D , (3D) .

  • DirectDraw. (2D) . DirectDraw . DirectDraw , 2D Windows.

  • DirectSound. . DirectSound . DirectSound , , , , .


  • . . , '.


'

i8088 20 1- '. 640 , , IBM - ' ' (conventional memory).

384 ' (UMB - Upper Memory Blocks, High DOS Memory UM Area - UMA) . ' ROM BIOS, ' ROM-' .

' (extended) 1 .


:

  • Multi-user , .

  • Multi-tasking ' .


  • Multi-processing ' (), .

  • Multi-threading , . .


  • . . , '. : , , - .


Real Mode -

  • , ,

  • 1 '

  • , ', '.

PC hardware can be interrupted by bad code.

.


Real Mode -

  • DOS. ' 1 ( HIMEM.SYS 80286 ).

  • i8086 i8088 16- . ', , 1 , 20- '.


Real Mode -


- Protected Mode

  • 16- i80286 - i8086. - .

  • i80286 . ', i80286 16 . i80286 , . , ' IBM PC / AT

  • ' ', '. ' , .

  • , , .


- Protected Mode

  • 32- ', -.

  • , ' . , , , .


- Protected Mode

  • ', . , , . , , , .


- Protected Mode

  • , , : 1. ' ; 2. ', ', ', '; 3. , .


- - Virtual Real Mode

  • - , , . 32- . , 10 , 32- . 80386 ( 386) ' .

  • 386 '. , (VIRTUAL REAL MODE), .

  • , - , , . , DOS 32- .


  • , .

  • , , , Windows NT, . , , .


- Compatibility Mode

  • . , Windows 2000 2 (Sp2) 3 (Sp3), : 1. . 2. . 3. regsvr32 %systemroot%\apppatch\slayerui.dll, %SystemRoot% , Windows OK.


  • - . , ' (. ). .


1. . 2. . 3. . , ' . 4. . 5. , , Windows 95, Windows NT 4.0. 6. . 7. .


32- 64-

  • 32- 64- . 1 - 32- , Windows XP Professional, 4 ', 64- 128 '. 2 - ' , 64- . 3 - 64- , Windows Vista 64-, , Kernel Patch Protection ' . Kernel Patch Protection, . ' , .


  • : - ; - , ; - .


Desktop Operating System

Network Operating System

  • ,

  • .


Compare Operating Systems

  • (Desktop operating systems):

    • Microsoft Windows: Windows XP.

    • Macintosh: Mac OS X.

    • Linux: Fedora, Ubuntu.

    • UNIX


Microsoft Windows

Windows XP Professional ', Windows Server ; Windows XP Home Edition ' ; Windows XP Media Center ', , ; Windows XP Tablet Edition ; Windows XP 64-bit Edition ' 64- ;


Microsoft Windows

Windows :

1. DOS:

Windows 1.0 (1985)

Windows (Windows for Workgroups) 3.1/3.11.

2. Windows 9x:

Windows 95 (1995 .), Windows 98 Windows Me.


Microsoft Windows

Windows :

3. Windows NT:

Windows NT 3.1 (1993)

Windows Server 2008 R2 - Windows NT 6.1 (2009) .

4. Windows Mobile ':

Windows CE

Windows Mobile


Microsoft Windows

Windows :

5. Windows NT:

Windows NT 3.1 (1993)

Windows Server 2008 R2 - Windows NT 6.1 (2009) .

6. Windows Embedded:

Windows Embedded CE,

Windows Embedded Standard,

Windows Embedded POSReady,

Windows Embedded Enterprise,

Windows Embedded NavReady,

Windows Embedded Server.


Microsoft Windows


Network Operating Systems (NOS)

  • NOS :

    • Novell Netware - Microsoft Windows Server Linux - UNIX

  • :

    • ;

    • ;

    • ;

    • .


, , :

  • ' , ?

  • ?

  • ', , '?


?

  • Office applications

    • word processing, spreadsheets, or presentation software

  • Graphics applications

    • Photoshop or Illustrator

  • Animation applications

    • Flash

  • Business applications

    • accounting, contact management, sales tracking or database


  • , , , .

  • , - , .

  • :

    • RAM capacity

    • Hard drive size

    • Processor speed

    • Video card memory and speed


Hardware Compatibility List (HCL)

  • HCL.

  • HCLs - .

  • HCL , .


Installing the Operating System

() :

- ' ;

- ;

- ' .


Hard Drive Setup Procedures

:

  • OS ;

  • OS ;

  • - DVD.

    (Partitioning) (Formatting):

  • ;

  • ;

  • .


Hard Drive Setup Procedures

, ' .


Prepare the Hard Drive

  • .

  • , .

  • , , , .


Prepare the Hard Drive

  • . . , DOS, UNIX, OS/2, ' . , , , . ' , . , . , .


Prepare the Hard Drive

  • . , . . FAT (File Allocation Table) , . , - , . .


Prepare the Hard Drive

  • . , ' . ' FAT . . , , , . . , , FAT . , FAT - , , . .


Prepare the Hard Drive

  • , . , . Windows : NTFS, FAT32 FAT (File Allocation Table) ( FAT16), .

  • :

    • DOS, DOS 7.0 Windows95, FAT (File Allocation Table). FAT ' , 12- 16- .

    • , 32- (Fat32) , ' 2 2,048 . Fat32 Windows 9.x, WindowsMe, Windows2000 WindowsXP.

    • (NTFS) , ' 16 . FAT NTFS .


FAT12/16

  • FAT ' , 12- 16- . 16- FAT 216--65526 ( ). 32 K; 2 . , 32 , 1 . , 512 M; '''' 8 K, .


(FAT16)

2 32

<1 16

<512 8

<256 4

<128 2


FAT32 (32- FAT )

FAT32 , .

FAT32 32- , 64- . 512 2 , - 2048 . 4 32 , , ' , .


(FAT32)

3 - 7 4

8 - 16 8

16 - 32 16

>32 32


NTFS (New Technology File System)

, Windows NT/2000/XP. NTFS (New Technology File System), : MFT (Master File Table - ), MFT- 12% , . NTFS ( ). 512 64 K, 4 K.


Install the Operating System

  • Windows XP ( )


Install the Operating System

  • :

    - , - ; - ; - ' ; - ; - ' '; - ; - ; - ; - .


The Boot Sequence for Windows XP


NTLDR and the Windows Boot Menu

  • Windows NT / 2000 / XP - NTLDR, BOOT.INI, NTDETECT.COM, NTBOOTDD.SYS BOOTSECT.DOS .

  • ' , BOOT.INI ' .


NTLDR

  • NTLDR ( NT Loader) Windows NT (2000/XP/Server 2003, Vista). NTLDR ( , , CD-ROM - USB), . NTLDR , NT, . NTLDR , , : NTLDR, , boot.ini, . WindowsNT, ntdetect.com.


NTLDR

  • 32- (32-bit flat memory mode);

  • (FAT NTFS);

  • HIBERFIL.SYS , ' .

  • , BOOT.INI , : - -NT ( Windows 98), , BOOT.INI (bootsect.dos, , ), , DOS. - Windows NT, NTDETECT.COM, .

  • NTOSKRNL.EXE ( ), NTOSKRNL.EXE, .


BOOT.INI

  • ' Windows XP Professional Boot.ini, :

    [boot loader] timeout=30 default=multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(1)\WINDOWS [operating systems] multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(1)\WINDOWS="Microsoft Windows XP Professional" /fastdetect.


boot.ini

  • , , Windows 2000 Windows XP, :

    [boot loader] timeout=30 default=multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(1)\WINDOWS [operating systems] multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(1)\WINDOWS="Windows XP Professional" /fastdetect multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(2)\WINNT="Windows 2000 Professional" /fastdetect


NTDETECT.COM

  • NTDETECT.COM Microsoft Windows NT, x86. Windows NT , .

  • NTDETECT.COM NTLDR NTLDR , NTOSKRNL.EXE, Windows.


, NTDETECT.COM

  • SCSI

  • -

  • ISA.


NTOSKRNL.EXE

  • , , ' HAL (Hardware Abstraction Layer, hal.dll, halmacpi.dll halacpi.dll).

  • NTOSKRNL.EXE Windows NT (NT 4.0, 2000, XP, 2003, Vista, 2008). NTLDR.

  • 4 : - NTOSKRNL.EXE Windows; - NTKRNLMP.EXE Windows; - NTKRNLPA.EXE Windows 3 ' (RAM); - NTKRPAMP.EXE Windows 3 ' (RAM).


Hardware Abstraction Layer - (HAL)

  • , , '. HAL , , , .

  • ' HAL, , , , .

  • Windows NT HAL ' , , , . Windows NT /, . , , SGI Intel x86, IBM - , HAL Windows NT .


WINLOGON.EXE

  • WINLOGON.EXE - , ( logon) ( logoff) . CTRL+ALT+DEL .


The Windows Registry

  • Windows Windows XP. , HKEY_,HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT

    HKEY_CURRENT_USER

    HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE

    HKEY_USERS

    HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG

  • ' , . Windows, , . , , , .


The Windows Registry Files


Upgrading an Operating System

Upgrade Paths


Preventive Maintenance Planning

, , , , .


  • , ' . .

  • Windows , : DOS AT .Start > Run > cmdAT /?(the command line).

    Windows

    Start > All Programs > Accessories > System Tools > Scheduled Tasks


Schedule Tasks

  • , DOS Windows. :

    • ScanDisk (Windows 2000) and CHKDSK (Windows XP) . .

    • Defrag: , .


Automatic Updates

  • , , .

  • , , '.


Restore Point

Windows XP ', . , ' , '.

.

:- ,- .


  • Windows 2000 (ERD), , Windows.

  • Windows XP (ASR). ERD ASR , .


  • , , , . Microsoft. , . .

  • . . , . ' .


  • , . , . , , .


  • , , , . , , . . , , .


  • () , . , , . . , .


  • () , . . . , , , , .


  • , . .


  • : * - , . - . * (DAT) - , 4- (DSS). * (DLT) - , . * -' USB . -' USB . .


Troubleshooting Process


1. Gather Data from the Customer

  • Customer information

    • Company name, contact name, address, phone number

  • Computer configuration

    • Operating system, patches and updates, network environment, connection type


1. Gather Data from the Customer


1. Gather Data from the Customer


Chapter 5 Summary

  • , .

  • ' , , .

  • , , '. , .

  • , .

  • .

  • Windows, , , .


Instructor Training Activities


Q and A


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