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Practical Updates in Anesthesiology. Dr. Mark Wigginton MB,BS FRCA. How to Teach A Brainiac : Educational theories in medical simulation. Content. Why is simulation not straight forward Theories of learning Types of simulation How educational theory is relevant to medical simulation

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Practical updates in anesthesiology

Practical Updates in Anesthesiology

Dr. Mark Wigginton MB,BS FRCA


How to teach a brainiac educational theories in medical simulation

How to Teach A Brainiac:Educational theories in medical simulation


Content
Content

  • Why is simulation not straight forward

  • Theories of learning

  • Types of simulation

  • How educational theory is relevant to medical simulation

  • Fidelity

  • Effective debrief


Adult learners
Adult Learners

  • Highly motivated

  • Attend courses because they want to learn

  • Self directed educational objectives

  • Teaching adult learners can be difficult

  • Defensive reasoning


Dangers of simulation
Dangers of simulation

  • Stress inducing

  • Under performance in company of peers

  • Long term self esteem and emotional issues


Theories of learning
Theories of learning

  • Behaviourism

    • Conditioning

  • Cognitivism

  • Humanism

    • Transformative learning

  • Constructivism

  • Taxonomies of intelligence

    • Howard Gardner 1983 Frames of Mind


Taxonomies of intelligence
Taxonomies of intelligence

  • Linguistic intelligence

  • Logical-mathematical intelligence 

  • Musical intelligence 

  • Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence 

  • Spatial intelligence 

  • Interpersonal intelligence 

  • Intrapersonal intelligence 

  • Moral / Naturalist /Spiritual / Existential


Types of simulation
Types of Simulation

  • Simulation for assessment

  • Simulation for research

  • Simulation for systems appraisal

  • Task training

  • Application of knowledge scenarios (High signal)

  • Human factors – CRM scenario (High noise)


Types of simulation vs educational objectives
Types of simulation vs educational objectives

  • Task training

  • Application of knowledge scenarios (High signal)

  • Human factors – CRM scenario (High noise)


Example
Example

  • Educational objectives:

    • Increased knowledge of anaphylaxis algorithm

    • Increased awareness of how to facilitate effective teamwork

    • Increased ability to perform emergency cricothyroidotomy




CONCRETE EXPERIENCE: Once the simulation has run the decisions made and the effects they had can be viewed in entirety. They become concrete experience.

Kolb’s learning cycle related to a simulation scenario

REFLECTIVE OBSERVATION: This part of the learning cycle relates to the debrief phase of simulation. If candidates are not able to critically evaluate the results of their actions they will not learn from them.

ACTIVE EXPERIMENTATION: The process of doing the simulation during which the candidate will make decisions and potentially need to alter these decisions depending on response.

ABSTRACT CONCEPTUALIZATION: Thinking about the task and using conceptual knowledge in planning strategy. In simulation this may relate to pre-course material or pre-scenario briefing.


Suspension of disbelief
Suspension of disbelief decisions made and the effects they had can be viewed in entirety. They become concrete experience.


Techniques for improving fidelity
Techniques for improving fidelity decisions made and the effects they had can be viewed in entirety. They become concrete experience.

  • High fidelity mannequin

  • Well programmed scenario

  • Experienced controller

  • Reduced scenario leader input

  • Candidates adopt their normal role

  • Faculty adopt their normal role

  • Ambient sound

  • Realistic setting

  • Point-of-care simulation


Considerations for point of care simulation
Considerations for point-of-care simulation decisions made and the effects they had can be viewed in entirety. They become concrete experience.

  • Safety

  • Interruption of normal activity

  • Mixing of simulation equipment with real equipment


CONCRETE EXPERIENCE: Once the simulation has run the decisions made and the effects they had can be viewed in entirety. They become concrete experience.

Kolb’s learning cycle related to a simulation scenario

REFLECTIVE OBSERVATION: This part of the learning cycle relates to the debrief phase of simulation. If candidates are not able to critically evaluate the results of their actions they will not learn from them.

ACTIVE EXPERIMENTATION: The process of doing the simulation during which the candidate will make decisions and potentially need to alter these decisions depending on response.

ABSTRACT CONCEPTUALIZATION: Thinking about the task and using conceptual knowledge in planning strategy. In simulation this may relate to pre-course material or pre-scenario briefing.


Debrief
Debrief decisions made and the effects they had can be viewed in entirety. They become concrete experience.

  • Duration at least as long as the simulation

  • In a different area

  • Video debrief

  • There’s no such thing as non-judgmental debrief

    • Espoused theory

    • Theory-in-use


Summary
Summary decisions made and the effects they had can be viewed in entirety. They become concrete experience.

  • Why is simulation not straight forward

  • Theories of learning

  • Types of simulation

  • How educational theory is relevant to medical simulation

  • Fidelity

  • Effective debrief


References
References decisions made and the effects they had can be viewed in entirety. They become concrete experience.

  • Argyris C. Teaching Smart People How to Learn. Harvard Business Review 1991; 4(2)

  • Pavlov I. P., (1927). Conditioned reflexes. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

  • Kang SG, Yang KS, Ko YH, Kang SH, Park HS, Lee JG, Kim JJ, Cheon J. A study on the learning curve of the robotic virtual reality simulator. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2012 Jun;22(5):438-42.

  • Friedman Z., Siddiqui N., Katznelson R., Devito I., Bould M.D., Naik V. Clinical Impact of Epidural Anesthesia Simulation on Short- and Long-term Learning Curve High- Versus Low-fidelity Model Training. RegAnesth Pain Med 2009; 34(3):229-232

  • Gaba D.M., Crisis resource management and teamwork training in anaesthesia. British Journal of Anaesthesia 105 (1): 3–6 (2010)

  • Kolb D., (1984) Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J.

  • Coffield F., Moseley D., Hall E., Ecclestone K. (2004) Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning. A systematic and critical review. London: Learning and Skills Research Centre.

  • Maslow A. A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review 1943; 50(4): 370-96

  • Hamann S. Cognitive and neural mechanisms of emotional memory. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 2001; 5(9): 394-400

  • Russell J. A Circumplex Model of Affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1980; 39(6): 1161-1178

  • Argyris C., Schön D. Theory in practice: increasing professional effectiveness (1974) Jossey-Bass San Francisco

  • Rudolph J., Simon R., Dufresne R., Raemer D. There’s No Such Thing as “Nonjudgmental” Debriefing: A Theory and Method for Debriefing with Good Judgment. Simulation in Healthcare 2006; 1(1): 49-55


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