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The Arthropods. Chapter 16. Phylum Arthropoda. Phylum Arthropoda. Largest phylum in Kingdom Animalia Anthropoda means “jointed feet” Includes lobsters, spiders, scorpions, millipedes, and insects Can be harmful or helpful Harmful: destroy crops, eat other animals’ food, spread diseases

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The arthropods

The Arthropods

Chapter 16



Phylum arthropoda1
Phylum Arthropoda

  • Largest phylum in Kingdom Animalia

  • Anthropoda means “jointed feet”

  • Includes lobsters, spiders, scorpions, millipedes, and insects

  • Can be harmful or helpful

  • Harmful: destroy crops, eat other animals’ food, spread diseases

  • Helpful: studied by engineers; control the numbers of harmful arthropods; help plants reproduce; make wax, honey, medicine, and silk


Phylum arthropoda2
Phylum Arthropoda

  • All arthropods have:

  • Exoskeleton – their bones are outside of their body

    • Chitin – allows the bones to be tough and flexible – they bend without breaking

    • Arthropods molt – as they grow, their exoskeleton becomes too small – they outgrow the exoskeleton and throw it away

  • Jointed appendages – their legs and feet have joints (bend)

  • Body segmentation – most have 3 parts to their bodies

    • Head

    • Thorax (chest)

    • Abdomen (belly)

  • Open Circulatory System – they have a heart, but the blood goes into the body parts after leaving the heart (not veins)

  • Ventral Nervous System – Ganglia (nerves) are located near the legs and connected to the brain by one cord



Nervous system anatomy1
Nervous System Anatomy

  • Brain – located in the head

  • Ganglia – nerves in the legs

  • Ventral Nerve Cord – big nerve that connects the brain and the ganglia

  • Antennae – come out of the head and do taste, smell, and touch

  • Compound eyes – insects and crustaceans have these – able to see all around, not just a few directions

    ______ OR_________

  • Simple eyes – able to see very little, usually just light and dark



Subphylum crustacea1
Subphylum Crustacea

  • Lobsters, crabs, crayfish, shrimp

  • Kingdom Animalia, Subkingdom Invertebrates, Phylum Anthropoda, Subphylum Crustacea

  • Usually live in the water

  • Carapace – the back plate of a lobster (the front has 6 plates)

  • Scavengers: they eat anything!They grind their food into powder using the gastric mill.

  • They can regenerate (grow new parts)

  • Reproduce sexually – male gives sperm to the female in the fall, female lays eggs in the spring that hatch in the summer



Subphylum chelicerata1
Subphylum Chelicerata

  • 3 classes: Arachnida is the most importantclass

  • Arachnids have:

    • 8 legs – 2 of these are pedipalps (legs used for sensing and mating instead of walking)

    • 2 major segments

      • Cephalothorax (head-chest)

      • abdomen

    • No antennae or mandibles (jaws)

      • Have chelicerae instead (mouth that looks like fangs)

    • Respiration by book lungs

      • Breathe through their stomachs

    • Usually 4 pair of simple eyes (8 eyes)

    • Reproduce sexually – females are usually larger than males


Other arachnids
Other Arachnids

  • Scorpions, mites, and ticks


Class insecta
Class Insecta


Class insecta1
Class Insecta

  • 80% of all animals are insects (bugs)

  • There are 31 orders under Class Insecta

  • Structure of Insects:

    • Three pairs of legs (six legs)

    • Usually have wings

    • 3 segments to the body

      • Head

      • Thorax (chest)

      • Abdomen

    • One pair of sensory antennae (2 of them)


Wings of insects
Wings of Insects

  • M0st insects have 2 pairs (4) wings

  • Kinds of wings:

    • Membranous wings: thin, transparent (see through) – most common kind of wing - like a dragonfly or a bee

    • Scale-covered wings: butterflies and moths


Wings of insects1
Wings of Insects

  • Continued:

    • Leatherlike wings: extra set of wings that protects the wings used to fly – like a cover for wings – grasshoppers have these

    • Horny wings: ladybug wings – thick, protect the smaller wings, cover the back of the bug


Digestion eating of insects
Digestion (eating) of Insects

  • Mouth:

    • Upper lip - labrum

    • Mandibles - used for chewing

    • Maxillae – put food into the mouth

    • Lower lip – labium

  • Stomach:

    • Foregut – behind the mouth – this is where salivary glands get the food wet with spit before going to the gizzard to be ground up into powder

    • Midgut – where the stomach is – gastric cecaput more digestive juices onto the food

    • Hindgut – place right before the food is excreted (pooped)


Respiration circulation excretion and reproduction
Respiration, Circulation, Excretion and Reproduction

  • Respiration: insects breathe in their abdomens through tubes called spiracles

  • Circulation: the insects heart pumps blood into the abdomen, where it covers the organs – no veins

  • Excretion: Malpighian tubules are straws that pull nitrogen out of the insect and put it into the intestines, where it will become poop

  • Reproduction: Sexual reproduction

    • The male puts sperm in the female

    • The female then lays eggs that will hatch later


Metamorphosis in insects
Metamorphosis in Insects

  • Metamorphosis means changing from a baby to an adult

  • There are two kinds of metamorphosis:

    • Incomplete metamorphosis (3 stages)

      • Grasshoppers, cicadas, and true bugs

        • Egg

        • Nymph (teenager – looks like a small adult) – only for insects that stay on land (cicadas)

        • OR

        • Naiad – teenager that doesn’t look like the adult and lives in the water (grasshoppers)

        • Adult – the bug



Metamorphosis
Metamorphosis

  • Complete metamorphosis (4 stages)

    • Most insects – butterflies, flies, beetles, mosquitoes

    • Eggs

    • Larva – like a little worm (maggots, grubs, wigglers, caterpillars) – childhood bug

    • Pupa – teenager insect – usually inside a case called a cocoon

    • Adult – the bug



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