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Cognitive Disorders. Cognitive Disorders. Recent Memory Impairment Disorientation Poor Judgment Confusion General loss of intellectual functioning May have: Hallucinations, delusions, personality changes, secondary emotional reactions

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cognitive disorders2
Cognitive Disorders
  • Recent Memory Impairment
  • Disorientation
  • Poor Judgment
  • Confusion
  • General loss of intellectual functioning
  • May have: Hallucinations, delusions, personality changes, secondary emotional reactions
  • Produced by medical, biochemical, or neurological alteration in brain
three cognitive disorders
Three Cognitive Disorders
  • Delirium- reduced awareness of E
  • Dementia- deterioration of intellectual functioning
  • Amnestic Disorders-Memory impairment
delirium
Delirium
  • Disorientation and Memory Loss (recent) not accounted for by dementia
  • Difficulty focusing, sustaining or shifting attention. Often is easily distracted
  • Develops over a few hours to a few days, fluctuates during the day, and tends to worsen at night
  • This is a disorder that IS due to a medical condition or substance
delirium5
Delirium
  • Speech may include:
    • Dysarthria- can’t articulate
    • Dysnomia- can’t name objects
    • Dysgraphia- can’t write
  • Perceptual disturbances can include:
    • Hallucinations
    • Illusions-inanimate object seen an animate one
    • Misinterpretations
delirium6
Delirium
  • May also frequently exhibit
    • Psychomotor disturbances
    • Emotional disturbances
    • Sleep-wake cycle disturbances
  • Elderly and children are at highest risk
  • Get to physician
  • Orient X4 (brief and frequent)
  • Prevent self harm
delirium7
Delirium
  • Conduct MSE thru out day
  • Catch early to avoid death or brain damage
dementia
Dementia
  • Tends to have more gradual onset
  • Memory loss for recent events usually goes first, then getting lost
  • Personality changes and loss of impulse control and judgment are common
  • Agnosia-can’t name objects, aphasia-difficulty understanding language, concentration difficulties effect speech, apraxia-can’t perform simple motor tasks
dementia9
Dementia
  • Loss of executive functioning
  • Many will try to hide the difficulties or deny them
  • Alzheimer’s is one type
  • Vascular, medical or substance induced
  • Differentiate from delirium and depression
  • Prevention and early treatment reduce long term damage
dementia10
Dementia
  • Once dementia has taken it’s course, help patient to be comfortable, safe, and calm
amnestic disorders
Amnestic Disorders
  • Only memory is effected
  • IS due to medical condition or substance
  • Marked impairment and change from previous functioning
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