Eggs as a functional emulsifier
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Eggs as a Functional Emulsifier. Shelly McKee, Auburn University American Egg Board. Egg Industry Structure. Producers. Shell Egg Grading. Further Processors. Bakery Supply. Food Manufacturers. Food Brokers. End Users. 1.2. Egg Products Processing Overview. HOLDING Refrigerated

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Eggs as a Functional Emulsifier

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Eggs as a functional emulsifier

Eggs as a Functional Emulsifier

Shelly McKee, Auburn University

American Egg Board


Eggs as a functional emulsifier

Egg Industry Structure

Producers

Shell Egg Grading

Further Processors

Bakery Supply

Food Manufacturers

Food Brokers

End Users

1.2


Eggs as a functional emulsifier

Egg Products Processing Overview

HOLDING

Refrigerated

no longer than

7 to 10 days

  • BREAKING

  • and separating yolks,

  • whites, shells

    • – Filtered

    • – Mixed

    • – Chilled

PASTEURIZATION

PACKAGING

REFRIGERATED

LIQUID EGG

PRODUCTS

FROZEN EGG

PRODUCTS

The design and construction of

EGG PROCESSING EQUIPMENT

meets E-3-A or 3-A Sanitary Standards

DRIED EGG

PRODUCTS

1.3


Eggs as a functional emulsifier

Egg Structure

Shell

Air Cell

Shell Membranes

Yolk

Chalazae

Latebra

Chalaziferous Layer

Germinal Disc

Thin Albumen (White)

Vitelline (Yolk)

Membrane

Thick Albumen (White)

Chalazae

Nature’s Most Perfect Food – The Egg!

1.5


Egg yolk composition

Egg Yolk Composition

  • Approximately 50% water, 17% protein (mainly ovovitellin), 33% lipids (mainly triglycerides, lecithin [phospholipids] and cholesterol)

  • Minerals: iron, phosphorus, calcium, manganese, iodine, copper and zinc

  • Vitamins A and D, B12, E, biotin, choline, folic acid, inositol, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine and thiamin

  • Xanthophyll: main yellow pigment

Egg Yolk Composition

33%

50%

17%

2.4


Eggs as a functional emulsifier

50%

6%

6%

27%

Egg Yolk Composition

65.5%

Triglycerides (Neutral Fats)

Oleic

Palmitic

Linoleic

Stearic

Other

11%

28.3%

Phospholipids

Lecithin (phosphatidylcholine)73%

Cephalin (phosphatidylethanolamine) 15%

lysophosphatidlycholine 5.8%

sphingomyelin 2.5%

lysophosphatidylethanolamine 2.1%

plasmalogen 0.9%

inositol phospholipid 0.6%


Emulsification

Emulsification

The phospholipids, lipoproteins and proteins foundin egg yolks are surface active agents that enable the formation of emulsions from immiscible liquids such as oil and water.

  • Egg yolks can be used to fortify wholeegg blends to increase emulsifying action

  • No essential differences are found inemulsifying properties of dried wholeegg and yolk and fresh liquid eggs

4.6


Eggs as a functional emulsifier

Emulsions/Surface activity-

a stable mixture of two immiscible liquid phases, one which is dispersed in the other

Mayonnaise


Emulsification1

Applications

Mayonnaise

Hollandaise sauce

Salad dressings

Baked goods

Mechanisms

Egg emulsifying properties come from the yolk

Emulsification


Eggs as a functional emulsifier

Emulsifiers in the egg yolk

  • Phospholipids-lecithin

  • Lipoproteins

  • Proteins- having hydrophilic and

  • hydrophobic regions


Eggs as a functional emulsifier

Emulsions/Surface activity

3 Components necessary for an

oil-in-water emulsion

a) oil

b) water

c) interface, proteins, phospholipids, lipoproteins

Water

Oil

Proteins, phospholipids,

lipoproteins


Good stable emulsion

Good Stable Emulsion

  • Should be viscous to hold suspended ingredients in place

  • Droplets dispersed (oil or water) should be small enough to remain in suspension and should be evenly distributed throughout the matrix


Eggs as a functional emulsifier

Emulsions

  • Factors affecting emulsions

    • Viscosity (Stability over time)

    • Amount of emulsifier (Formation and Stability)

      • ratio of emulsifier/fat/water

    • Additives

      • 0.05% sodium-2-lactylate increases emulsion stability


Eggs as a functional emulsifier

Mayonnaise is made by combining lemon juice or vinegar with egg yolks.

Eggs (containing the emulsifier lecithin) bind the ingredients together and prevent separation.

Adding oil too quickly (or insufficient, rapid whisking) will keep the two liquids from combining (emulsifying).

As the sauce begins to thicken, oil can be added more rapidly. Seasonings are whisked in after all of the oil has been added.


Eggs as a functional emulsifier

Long shelf life (1 year), functionality,variety blends


Frozen egg products

FROZEN EGG PRODUCTS

  • Frozen yolk has 10 % salt or sugar added to prevent irreversible protein gelation. Result is a smooth creamy, viscous yolk.


Egg products

Egg Products

  • Sanovo Foods produces enzyme-modified product Heat-stable egg yolk.

  • Uses enzymes to degrade phospholipids phospholipids which account for 7-8% of the egg yolk. The enzyme converts a large part of the lecithin in the egg yolk into lysolecithin, which has much better emulsifying properties.


Eggs as a functional emulsifier

Mayonnaise

Made with liquid frozen whole egg

Made with liquid frozen salted egg yolk

Cheese Cake

Cinnamon rolls

Made with liquid frozen sugared egg yolk


Some common applications of emulsifiers

Some common applications of emulsifiers

  • BreadIt is possible to make bread without emulsifiers but the result is often dry, low in volume and easily stales. As little as 0.5% emulsifier added to the dough is enough to achieve an enhanced volume, a softer crumb structure and a longer shelf-life.

  • ChocolateAll chocolate products contain 0.5% of lecithin. These emulsifiers are added to provide the right consistency of the chocolate, so it can be molded into plates of chocolate, chocolate bars etc.


Some common applications of emulsifiers1

Some common applications of emulsifiers

  • Ice-creamIce-cream: both a foam and an emulsion it contains ice crystals and an unfrozen aqueous mix.

  • Emulsifiers are added during the freezing process, to promote a smoother texture and ensure the ice-cream does not melt rapidly after serving.

  • They also improve freeze-thaw stability. All this applies to other desserts such as sorbet, milkshake, frozen mousse and frozen yogurt as well.


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