Comm 122 micro macro organizational communication lecture 4 10 22 08
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COMM 122: Micro/Macro Organizational Communication Lecture 4 10/22/08. Dave Seibold Professor, Department of Communication Division of Social Sciences (L&S) Co-Director, Graduate Program in Management Practice Technology Management Program (CoE). Review Lecture 3 10/15/08.

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COMM 122: Micro/Macro Organizational Communication Lecture 4 10/22/08

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Comm 122 micro macro organizational communication lecture 4 10 22 08

COMM 122:Micro/Macro Organizational Communication Lecture 4 10/22/08

Dave Seibold

Professor, Department of Communication

Division of Social Sciences (L&S)

Co-Director, Graduate Program in Management Practice

Technology Management Program (CoE)


Review lecture 3 10 15 08

Review Lecture 3 10/15/08

1. Structure

2.Systems School

6 Theorists

5 Concepts

3. Communication Load & Implications


5 schools of organizational theory

5 Schools of Organizational Theory

Classical/Traditional School

Human Relations/Resources School

Systems School

Interpretive/Cultural School

Critical School


Structure

Structure

Each organization has some DEGREE of the following . . .

Configuration

a. span of control

b. hierarchical level

c. organizational size

Complexity

a. vertical complexity b. horizontal complexity

Formalization

Centralization


Structure1

Structure

Evident in all three schools:

Classical/Traditional:

Building block of bureaucracy (Weber), industrial management (Fayol), and scientific management (Taylor) -- most central here

HR: Basis for relationships between organizational work groups

Systems: Design of organization, especially as outcome of organizing


Systems school

Systems School

6 Key Theorists

1. Sociotechnical Systems Theory: Emery & Trist (1960)

2. Management Theory: Woodward (1965)

3. Biology: Bertalanffy (1962)

4. Engineering/Physics: Shannon & Weaver (1949)

5. Social Psychology: Katz & Kahn (1966)

6. Communication: Farace, Monge & Russell (1977)


Systems school1

Systems School

6 Key Theorists

1. Sociotechnical Systems Theory: Emery & Trist (1960)

2. Management Theory: Woodward (1965)

3. Biology: Bertalanffy (1962)

4. Engineering/Physics: Shannon & Weaver (1949)

5. Social Psychology: Katz & Kahn (1966)

6. Communication: Farace, Monge & Russell (1977)

Implications

Environment(s) recognized

Interdependence(ies) highlighted

Overtime changes & analyses emphasized


Systems school2

Systems School

5 Concepts

1. Interdependence

2. Goals

3. Feedback: deviation-counteracting (morphostasis)

deviation-amplifying (morphogenesis)

4. Environment: entropy (disorder)

negative entropy (lack of disorder)

Law of Requisite Variety

5. Contingency: equifinality (Galbraith)

turbulent/placid environments (Emery & Trist)


Systems school3

Systems School

Communication Load (p. 29-30 of Reader)

I. DEFINITION

II. DETERMINANTS

III. FINDINGS

IV. (PROBLEMATIC) LEVELS OF LOAD

V. FACTORS AFFECTING LOAD

VI. STRATEGIES


Systems school4

Systems School

Communication Implications

1.Comm critical: “cement” that holds sub-systems together

2. Comm functions:

a. control and coordination

b. provide info to decision makers

c. adjust org to changes in its environment


Systems school5

Systems School

Communication Implications (con’t)

3. Directions of comm flow:

a. all directions within the system,

b. including downwards and upward across levels

c. & across org’s boundary w/environment

Comm problems:

a. overload, distortion, and omission

b. unresponsiveness to negative feedback


Preview lecture 4

Preview Lecture 4

1. Systems (vs Classical vs HR) School

2. Organizational Environment

4 Types

3 Levels

Enacted Environment/Retrospective Sense-Making

3. Cultural/Interpretive School

4. Critical School


Systems vs classical vs hr school

Systems (vs Classical vs HR) School

Classical/Traditional School

Persons = Economically driven, rational beings

World = Mechanistic; machine theory, time-motion studies

Org key = Structure

Issues = Hierarchy, job duties, division of labor, centralization, size & shape, line vs staff

Resources = Money, specialization, rigid hierarchy, rules & regulations, impersonalness

Communication emphasis = Downward communication

HR School

Persons = Goal driven, social beings

World = Social, participative; group norms important

Org key = Social networks, informal groups

Issues = Status, role, social relations, morale, attitude, groups, individual personality

Resources = People, shared authority, participation, job satisfaction

Communication emphasis = Informal communication


Systems vs classical vs hr school1

Systems (vs Classical vs HR) School

Systems School

Persons = Interdependently connected; part of a system

How World Operates = Wheels w/in wheels; interdependent systems w/in larger environment

Org Key =

Issues =

Resources =

Communication emphasis =


Systems vs classical vs hr school2

Systems (vs Classical vs HR) School

Systems School

Persons = Interdependently connected; part of a system

World = Wheels w/in wheels; interdependent systems w/in larger environment

Key Characteristic of Org = Interdependence

Issues = Input, output, transformation, feedback, equilibrium, steady state

Resources =

Communication emphasis =


Systems vs classical vs hr school3

Systems (vs Classical vs HR) School

Systems School

Persons = Interdependently connected; part of a system

World = Wheels w/in wheels; interdependent systems w/in larger environment

Org Key = Interdependence

Issues = Input, output, transformation, feedback, equilibrium, steady state

Resources Available to Deal w/Problems = Input, feedback, process (transformation), information

Communication emphasis =


Systems vs classical vs hr school4

Systems (vs Classical vs HR) School

Systems School

Persons = Interdependently connected; part of a system

World = Wheels w/in wheels; interdependent systems w/in larger environment

Org Key = Interdependence

Issues = Input, output, transformation, feedback, equilibrium, steady state

Resources Available to Deal w/Problems = Input, feedback, process (transformation), information

Communication emphasis = Linking function


Systems vs classical vs hr school5

Systems (vs Classical vs HR) School

Systems School

Persons = Interdependently connected; part of a system

World = Wheels w/in wheels; interdependent systems w/in larger environment

Org Key = Interdependence

Issues = Input, output, transformation, feedback, equilibrium, steady state

Resources = Input, feedback, process (transformation), information

Communication = Linking function


Systems school6

Systems School

Organizational Environment (p. 19 of Reader)

Emery & Trist’s 4 “Types” of Org. Environments

1. Placid-Randomized

2. Placid-Clustered

3. Disturbed-Reactive

4. Turbulent


Systems school7

Systems School

(review “Key Concept”)

4. Environment:

Interaction w/ environment essential to system survival

Non-interaction w/ environment --> entropy (disorder)

Open system capturing resources to renew = negative entropy (lack of disorder)

Law of Requisite Variety: the more complex the envirn, the more complex the structures needed to enable org to deal w/ envirn


Systems school8

Systems School

Organizational Environment (p. 19 of Reader)

Emery & Trist’s 4 “Types” of Org. Environments

Environment = resources available to org to aid survival


Systems school9

Systems School

Organizational Environment (p. 19 of Reader)

Emery & Trist’s 4 “Types” of Org. Environments

Envirn = resources available to org to aid survival

1. Placid-Randomized Environment:

resources randomly distributed throughout the environment, w/constant probability of securing them

To survive:

-Find different sorts of resources to use

-Store a single resource

-Use an abundant resource


Systems school10

Systems School

Organizational Environment (p. 19 of Reader)

Emery & Trist’s 4 “Types” of Org. Environments

Envirn = resources available to org to aid survival

1. Placid-Randomized

2. Placid-Clustered Environments:

sequential shifts in resource probabilities,

but predictable

To survive:

-Accumulate sufficient resources to survive resource scarcity

-Reduce need for resources during lean periods


Systems school11

Systems School

Organizational Environment (p. 19 of Reader)

Emery & Trist’s 4 “Types” of Org. Environments

Envirn = resources available to org to aid survival

1. Placid-Randomized

2. Placid-Clustered

3. Disturbed-Reactive Environments:

competitive interdependence -- distributions and

probabilities created by actions of orgs themselves

To survive:

-Identify interdependencies

-Anticipate competitors’ actions and reactions


Systems school12

Systems School

Organizational Environment (p. 19 of Reader)

Emery & Trist’s 4 “Types” of Org. Environments

Envirn = resources available to org to aid survival

1. Placid-Randomized

2. Placid-Clustered

3. Disturbed-Reactive

4. Turbulent Environments:

(known competitive interdependencies)

+ (far removed interdependencies) = ripple effects

Survival threatened . . .


Systems school13

Systems School

Organizational Environment (p. 19 of Reader)

Emery & Trist’s 4 “Types” of Org. Environments

1. Placid-Randomized

2. Placid-Clustered

3. Disturbed-Reactive

4. Turbulent


Systems school14

Systems School

Organizational Environment (p. 19 of Reader)

Pfeffer & Salancik’s 3 “Levels” of Org. Environment

1. System of indivs/orgs related to one another (& a focal org.) through the org’s transactions.

2. Set of indivs/orgs with whom org interacts.

3. Perceptions/representation of “environment”by org/members (i.e., enacted environment).


Systems school cultural school

Systems School ---> Cultural School

Organizational Environment

Weick’s Enacted Envirn viz “Retrospective Sense-Making”

Premise: orgs exist in complex, uncertain

information envirns (not just physical envirns)

2. Envirns don’t exist ‘out there’; indivs/orgs ‘create’ envirns (enact them)

3. Enactment = making sense of uncertainty via communication cycles (equivocality reduction)


Systems school cultural school1

Systems School ---> Cultural School

Organizational Environment

Weick’s Enacted Envirn viz “Retrospective Sense-Making”

4. Equivocality (uncertainty) = same facts can be interpreted in multiple ways (pun on equifinality)

5. Major goal of orgs: reduction of equivocality

in envirn (uncertainty reduction)

How do they do so?????


Systems school cultural school2

Systems School ---> Cultural School

Organizational Environment (p. 31 of Reader09F)

Weick’s “Retrospective Sense-Making”

1. Equivocality reduction via enactment, selection, retention (model in K. Miller)


Systems school cultural school3

Systems School ---> Cultural School

Organizational Environment (p. 31 of Reader09F)

Weick’s “Retrospective Sense-Making”

1. Equivocality reduction via enactment, selection, retention

(model in K. Miller)

2. Environmental “enactment” as a process of retrospective“sense making” by org.members.


Systems school cultural school4

Systems School ---> Cultural School

Organizational Environment (p. 31 of Reader09F

Weick’s “Retrospective Sense-Making”

Equivocality reduction via enactment, selection, retention

(model in K. Miller)

2. Environmental “enactment” as a process of retrospective“sense making” by org.members.

3. “Loose coupling” as an adaptation to turbulence in enacted environment.


5 schools of organizational theory1

5 Schools of Organizational Theory

Classical/Traditional School

Human Relations/Resources School

Systems School

Interpretive/Cultural School

Critical School


Cultural school

Cultural School

Introduction

What is “culture”?

What “organizational culture” is . . .

Goal of researchers in this area


Cultural school p 43 of reader09f

Cultural School (p. 43 of Reader09F)

A. Popularity of Organizational Culture Perspective

1. Popular press, Professional press, Academic press

2. Interpretive Research Paradigm (vs. Functionalism/Positivism)

3. Examples in Communication (Since 1985)


Cultural school p 43 of reader09f1

Cultural School (p. 43 of Reader09F)

B. Shifts toward Organizational Culture Perspective

1. Shifts in Business

-- Culture is something an org “has”

Deal & Kennedy’s “strong” org culture

Peters & Waterman’s “excellent” cultures


Cultural school p 43 of reader09f2

Cultural School (p. 43 of Reader09F)

B. Shifts toward Organizational Culture Perspective

1. Shifts in Business

2. Shifts in Organizational Communication Theory

toward higher mental processes (sense-making)

toward language & creation of meaning

toward social construction of reality (e.g., temporality)

Comm creates & recreates the social structures that

makes orgs apparent.


Cultural school p 43 of reader09f3

Cultural School (p. 43 of Reader09F)

B. Shifts toward Organizational Culture Perspective

1. Shifts in Business

2. Shifts in Organizational Communication Theory

3. Shifts in Human Sciences

toward “understanding” (vs explanation)

toward metaphors as bases for understanding

toward assumptions implied in metaphors


Cultural school p 43 of reader09f4

Cultural School (p. 43 of Reader09F)

C. Research Approaches to Organizational Culture

1. Comparative Management Approach:

Culture as External Variable


Cultural school p 43 of reader09f5

Cultural School (p. 43 of Reader09F)

C. Research Approaches to Organizational Culture

1. Comparative Management Approach: Culture as External Variable

2. Corporate Culture Approach:

Culture as Internal Variable


Cultural school p 43 of reader09f6

Cultural School (p. 43 of Reader09F)

C. Research Approaches to Organizational Culture

Comparative Management Approach: Culture as External Variable

Corporate Culture Approach: Culture as Internal Variable

Problems w/ Approaches 1 and 2

a. Culture still treated as linear

b. Culture assumed to work mechanistically

c. Culture what management promotes


Cultural school p 43 of reader09f7

Cultural School (p. 43 of Reader09F)

C. Research Approaches to Organizational Culture

1. Comparative Management Approach: Culture as External Variable

2. Corporate Culture Approach: Culture as Internal Variable

3. Organizational Cognition Approach:

Culture as Knowledge Structures


Cultural school p 43 of reader09f8

Cultural School (p. 43 of Reader09F)

C. Research Approaches to Organizational Culture

1. Comparative Management Approach: Culture as External Variable

2. Corporate Culture Approach: Culture as Internal Variable

3. Organizational Cognition Approach: Culture as Knowledge Structures

4. Organizational Symbolism Approach:

Culture as PatternsofDiscourse


Cultural school p 44 of reader09f

Cultural School (p. 44 of Reader09F)

D. Limitations of Organizational Culture Approaches

1. Atheoretical

2. Non-longitudinal Studies

3. Shared Practices vs. Shared Values/Meaning

4. Shift to Other Approaches/Metaphors (New Forms, SOSTs)

5. Popularization as Tool of Control, Not Understanding


Critical theory school

Critical Theory School

A. Core Assumptions

1. Societal structures (wealth, status, gender) lead to power imbalances

2. Imbalances of power lead to alienation and oppression for certain social classes and groups

3. Role of critical theorists is to uncover these imbalances, and to bring them to the attention of oppressed groups, so that emancipation is possible (through awareness and political action)


Critical theory school p 45 of reader09f

Critical Theory School (p. 45 of Reader09F)

B. Example

Time and 5 OT Schools

Critical Perspective


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