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COMM 122: Micro/Macro Organizational Communication Lecture 4 10/22/08. Dave Seibold Professor, Department of Communication Division of Social Sciences (L&S) Co-Director, Graduate Program in Management Practice Technology Management Program (CoE). Review Lecture 3 10/15/08.

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comm 122 micro macro organizational communication lecture 4 10 22 08

COMM 122:Micro/Macro Organizational Communication Lecture 4 10/22/08

Dave Seibold

Professor, Department of Communication

Division of Social Sciences (L&S)

Co-Director, Graduate Program in Management Practice

Technology Management Program (CoE)

review lecture 3 10 15 08
Review Lecture 3 10/15/08

1. Structure

2. Systems School

6 Theorists

5 Concepts

3. Communication Load & Implications

5 schools of organizational theory
5 Schools of Organizational Theory

Classical/Traditional School

Human Relations/Resources School

Systems School

Interpretive/Cultural School

Critical School

structure
Structure

Each organization has some DEGREE of the following . . .

Configuration

a. span of control

b. hierarchical level

c. organizational size

Complexity

a. vertical complexity b. horizontal complexity

Formalization

Centralization

structure1
Structure

Evident in all three schools:

Classical/Traditional:

Building block of bureaucracy (Weber), industrial management (Fayol), and scientific management (Taylor) -- most central here

HR: Basis for relationships between organizational work groups

Systems: Design of organization, especially as outcome of organizing

systems school
Systems School

6 Key Theorists

1. Sociotechnical Systems Theory: Emery & Trist (1960)

2. Management Theory: Woodward (1965)

3. Biology: Bertalanffy (1962)

4. Engineering/Physics: Shannon & Weaver (1949)

5. Social Psychology: Katz & Kahn (1966)

6. Communication: Farace, Monge & Russell (1977)

systems school1
Systems School

6 Key Theorists

1. Sociotechnical Systems Theory: Emery & Trist (1960)

2. Management Theory: Woodward (1965)

3. Biology: Bertalanffy (1962)

4. Engineering/Physics: Shannon & Weaver (1949)

5. Social Psychology: Katz & Kahn (1966)

6. Communication: Farace, Monge & Russell (1977)

Implications

Environment(s) recognized

Interdependence(ies) highlighted

Overtime changes & analyses emphasized

systems school2
Systems School

5 Concepts

1. Interdependence

2. Goals

3. Feedback: deviation-counteracting (morphostasis)

deviation-amplifying (morphogenesis)

4. Environment: entropy (disorder)

negative entropy (lack of disorder)

Law of Requisite Variety

5. Contingency: equifinality (Galbraith)

turbulent/placid environments (Emery & Trist)

systems school3
Systems School

Communication Load (p. 29-30 of Reader)

I. DEFINITION

II. DETERMINANTS

III. FINDINGS

IV. (PROBLEMATIC) LEVELS OF LOAD

V. FACTORS AFFECTING LOAD

VI. STRATEGIES

systems school4
Systems School

Communication Implications

1. Comm critical: “cement” that holds sub-systems together

2. Comm functions:

a. control and coordination

b. provide info to decision makers

c. adjust org to changes in its environment

systems school5
Systems School

Communication Implications (con’t)

3. Directions of comm flow:

a. all directions within the system,

b. including downwards and upward across levels

c. & across org’s boundary w/environment

Comm problems:

a. overload, distortion, and omission

b. unresponsiveness to negative feedback

preview lecture 4
Preview Lecture 4

1. Systems (vs Classical vs HR) School

2. Organizational Environment

4 Types

3 Levels

Enacted Environment/Retrospective Sense-Making

3. Cultural/Interpretive School

4. Critical School

systems vs classical vs hr school
Systems (vs Classical vs HR) School

Classical/Traditional School

Persons = Economically driven, rational beings

World = Mechanistic; machine theory, time-motion studies

Org key = Structure

Issues = Hierarchy, job duties, division of labor, centralization, size & shape, line vs staff

Resources = Money, specialization, rigid hierarchy, rules & regulations, impersonalness

Communication emphasis = Downward communication

HR School

Persons = Goal driven, social beings

World = Social, participative; group norms important

Org key = Social networks, informal groups

Issues = Status, role, social relations, morale, attitude, groups, individual personality

Resources = People, shared authority, participation, job satisfaction

Communication emphasis = Informal communication

systems vs classical vs hr school1
Systems (vs Classical vs HR) School

Systems School

Persons = Interdependently connected; part of a system

How World Operates = Wheels w/in wheels; interdependent systems w/in larger environment

Org Key =

Issues =

Resources =

Communication emphasis =

systems vs classical vs hr school2
Systems (vs Classical vs HR) School

Systems School

Persons = Interdependently connected; part of a system

World = Wheels w/in wheels; interdependent systems w/in larger environment

Key Characteristic of Org = Interdependence

Issues = Input, output, transformation, feedback, equilibrium, steady state

Resources =

Communication emphasis =

systems vs classical vs hr school3
Systems (vs Classical vs HR) School

Systems School

Persons = Interdependently connected; part of a system

World = Wheels w/in wheels; interdependent systems w/in larger environment

Org Key = Interdependence

Issues = Input, output, transformation, feedback, equilibrium, steady state

Resources Available to Deal w/Problems = Input, feedback, process (transformation), information

Communication emphasis =

systems vs classical vs hr school4
Systems (vs Classical vs HR) School

Systems School

Persons = Interdependently connected; part of a system

World = Wheels w/in wheels; interdependent systems w/in larger environment

Org Key = Interdependence

Issues = Input, output, transformation, feedback, equilibrium, steady state

Resources Available to Deal w/Problems = Input, feedback, process (transformation), information

Communication emphasis = Linking function

systems vs classical vs hr school5
Systems (vs Classical vs HR) School

Systems School

Persons = Interdependently connected; part of a system

World = Wheels w/in wheels; interdependent systems w/in larger environment

Org Key = Interdependence

Issues = Input, output, transformation, feedback, equilibrium, steady state

Resources = Input, feedback, process (transformation), information

Communication = Linking function

systems school6
Systems School

Organizational Environment (p. 19 of Reader)

Emery & Trist’s 4 “Types” of Org. Environments

1. Placid-Randomized

2. Placid-Clustered

3. Disturbed-Reactive

4. Turbulent

systems school7
Systems School

(review “Key Concept”)

4. Environment:

Interaction w/ environment essential to system survival

Non-interaction w/ environment --> entropy (disorder)

Open system capturing resources to renew = negative entropy (lack of disorder)

Law of Requisite Variety: the more complex the envirn, the more complex the structures needed to enable org to deal w/ envirn

systems school8
Systems School

Organizational Environment (p. 19 of Reader)

Emery & Trist’s 4 “Types” of Org. Environments

Environment = resources available to org to aid survival

systems school9
Systems School

Organizational Environment (p. 19 of Reader)

Emery & Trist’s 4 “Types” of Org. Environments

Envirn = resources available to org to aid survival

1. Placid-Randomized Environment:

resources randomly distributed throughout the environment, w/constant probability of securing them

To survive:

-Find different sorts of resources to use

-Store a single resource

-Use an abundant resource

systems school10
Systems School

Organizational Environment (p. 19 of Reader)

Emery & Trist’s 4 “Types” of Org. Environments

Envirn = resources available to org to aid survival

1. Placid-Randomized

2. Placid-Clustered Environments:

sequential shifts in resource probabilities,

but predictable

To survive:

-Accumulate sufficient resources to survive resource scarcity

-Reduce need for resources during lean periods

systems school11
Systems School

Organizational Environment (p. 19 of Reader)

Emery & Trist’s 4 “Types” of Org. Environments

Envirn = resources available to org to aid survival

1. Placid-Randomized

2. Placid-Clustered

3. Disturbed-Reactive Environments:

competitive interdependence -- distributions and

probabilities created by actions of orgs themselves

To survive:

-Identify interdependencies

-Anticipate competitors’ actions and reactions

systems school12
Systems School

Organizational Environment (p. 19 of Reader)

Emery & Trist’s 4 “Types” of Org. Environments

Envirn = resources available to org to aid survival

1. Placid-Randomized

2. Placid-Clustered

3. Disturbed-Reactive

4. Turbulent Environments:

(known competitive interdependencies)

+ (far removed interdependencies) = ripple effects

Survival threatened . . .

systems school13
Systems School

Organizational Environment (p. 19 of Reader)

Emery & Trist’s 4 “Types” of Org. Environments

1. Placid-Randomized

2. Placid-Clustered

3. Disturbed-Reactive

4. Turbulent

systems school14
Systems School

Organizational Environment (p. 19 of Reader)

Pfeffer & Salancik’s 3 “Levels” of Org. Environment

1. System of indivs/orgs related to one another (& a focal org.) through the org’s transactions.

2. Set of indivs/orgs with whom org interacts.

3. Perceptions/representation of “environment”by org/members (i.e., enacted environment).

systems school cultural school
Systems School ---> Cultural School

Organizational Environment

Weick’s Enacted Envirn viz “Retrospective Sense-Making”

Premise: orgs exist in complex, uncertain

information envirns (not just physical envirns)

2. Envirns don’t exist ‘out there’; indivs/orgs ‘create’ envirns (enact them)

3. Enactment = making sense of uncertainty via communication cycles (equivocality reduction)

systems school cultural school1
Systems School ---> Cultural School

Organizational Environment

Weick’s Enacted Envirn viz “Retrospective Sense-Making”

4. Equivocality (uncertainty) = same facts can be interpreted in multiple ways (pun on equifinality)

5. Major goal of orgs: reduction of equivocality

in envirn (uncertainty reduction)

How do they do so?????

systems school cultural school2
Systems School ---> Cultural School

Organizational Environment (p. 31 of Reader09F)

Weick’s “Retrospective Sense-Making”

1. Equivocality reduction via enactment, selection, retention (model in K. Miller)

systems school cultural school3
Systems School ---> Cultural School

Organizational Environment (p. 31 of Reader09F)

Weick’s “Retrospective Sense-Making”

1. Equivocality reduction via enactment, selection, retention

(model in K. Miller)

2. Environmental “enactment” as a process of retrospective“sense making” by org.members.

systems school cultural school4
Systems School ---> Cultural School

Organizational Environment (p. 31 of Reader09F

Weick’s “Retrospective Sense-Making”

Equivocality reduction via enactment, selection, retention

(model in K. Miller)

2. Environmental “enactment” as a process of retrospective“sense making” by org.members.

3. “Loose coupling” as an adaptation to turbulence in enacted environment.

5 schools of organizational theory1
5 Schools of Organizational Theory

Classical/Traditional School

Human Relations/Resources School

Systems School

Interpretive/Cultural School

Critical School

cultural school
Cultural School

Introduction

What is “culture”?

What “organizational culture” is . . .

Goal of researchers in this area

cultural school p 43 of reader09f
Cultural School (p. 43 of Reader09F)

A. Popularity of Organizational Culture Perspective

1. Popular press, Professional press, Academic press

2. Interpretive Research Paradigm (vs. Functionalism/Positivism)

3. Examples in Communication (Since 1985)

cultural school p 43 of reader09f1
Cultural School (p. 43 of Reader09F)

B. Shifts toward Organizational Culture Perspective

1. Shifts in Business

-- Culture is something an org “has”

Deal & Kennedy’s “strong” org culture

Peters & Waterman’s “excellent” cultures

cultural school p 43 of reader09f2
Cultural School (p. 43 of Reader09F)

B. Shifts toward Organizational Culture Perspective

1. Shifts in Business

2. Shifts in Organizational Communication Theory

toward higher mental processes (sense-making)

toward language & creation of meaning

toward social construction of reality (e.g., temporality)

Comm creates & recreates the social structures that

makes orgs apparent.

cultural school p 43 of reader09f3
Cultural School (p. 43 of Reader09F)

B. Shifts toward Organizational Culture Perspective

1. Shifts in Business

2. Shifts in Organizational Communication Theory

3. Shifts in Human Sciences

toward “understanding” (vs explanation)

toward metaphors as bases for understanding

toward assumptions implied in metaphors

cultural school p 43 of reader09f4
Cultural School (p. 43 of Reader09F)

C. Research Approaches to Organizational Culture

1. Comparative Management Approach:

Culture as External Variable

cultural school p 43 of reader09f5
Cultural School (p. 43 of Reader09F)

C. Research Approaches to Organizational Culture

1. Comparative Management Approach: Culture as External Variable

2. Corporate Culture Approach:

Culture as Internal Variable

cultural school p 43 of reader09f6
Cultural School (p. 43 of Reader09F)

C. Research Approaches to Organizational Culture

Comparative Management Approach: Culture as External Variable

Corporate Culture Approach: Culture as Internal Variable

Problems w/ Approaches 1 and 2

a. Culture still treated as linear

b. Culture assumed to work mechanistically

c. Culture what management promotes

cultural school p 43 of reader09f7
Cultural School (p. 43 of Reader09F)

C. Research Approaches to Organizational Culture

1. Comparative Management Approach: Culture as External Variable

2. Corporate Culture Approach: Culture as Internal Variable

3. Organizational Cognition Approach:

Culture as Knowledge Structures

cultural school p 43 of reader09f8
Cultural School (p. 43 of Reader09F)

C. Research Approaches to Organizational Culture

1. Comparative Management Approach: Culture as External Variable

2. Corporate Culture Approach: Culture as Internal Variable

3. Organizational Cognition Approach: Culture as Knowledge Structures

4. Organizational Symbolism Approach:

Culture as PatternsofDiscourse

cultural school p 44 of reader09f
Cultural School (p. 44 of Reader09F)

D. Limitations of Organizational Culture Approaches

1. Atheoretical

2. Non-longitudinal Studies

3. Shared Practices vs. Shared Values/Meaning

4. Shift to Other Approaches/Metaphors (New Forms, SOSTs)

5. Popularization as Tool of Control, Not Understanding

critical theory school
Critical Theory School

A. Core Assumptions

1. Societal structures (wealth, status, gender) lead to power imbalances

2. Imbalances of power lead to alienation and oppression for certain social classes and groups

3. Role of critical theorists is to uncover these imbalances, and to bring them to the attention of oppressed groups, so that emancipation is possible (through awareness and political action)

critical theory school p 45 of reader09f
Critical Theory School (p. 45 of Reader09F)

B. Example

Time and 5 OT Schools

Critical Perspective

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