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A Physics Toolkit. Chapter 1. 1.1 Physics. Energy, matter and their relationship Understanding the physical world Careers Scientists, astronomers, engineers, teachers, computer science, medicine. Mathematics. Language of physics Model observations Representations

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1 1 physics
1.1 Physics
  • Energy, matter and their relationship
  • Understanding the physical world
  • Careers
    • Scientists, astronomers, engineers, teachers, computer science, medicine
mathematics
Mathematics
  • Language of physics
  • Model observations
  • Representations
    • Equations, pictures, force diagrams, written descriptions, motion maps…
does it make sense
DOES IT MAKE SENSE??
  • Numbers, units, blah, blah, blah
  • Copper ball falls 5 m.
    • Calculated answers: 0.002 s or 17 s
si units
SI Units
  • 7 base units: Meter, Kilogram, Second, Kelvin, Mole, Ampere, Candela
  • Everything else is derived
    • Joule
    • Coulomb
    • Newton
conversions
Conversions
  • Femto (10-15) to tera (1012)
  • Same as chemistry
  • Dimensional analysis
    • 1kg/1000g = 1
significant figures
Significant Figures
  • Zeros to locate the decimal are not significant
  • Scientific notation makes it easier to identify significant zeros
  • Arithmetic result may never be more precise than the least precise measurement
    • Addition, subtraction, multiplication, division
  • Counting numbers are exact
scientific methods
Scientific Methods
  • Make observations
  • Do experiments
  • Create models or theories to explain results
  • Repeat for many iterations
  • How are variables related?
models laws theories
MODELS, Laws, Theories
  • Models based on experimentation
    • Atomic model, Bohr model, Quantum model
  • New data that doesn’t fit existing model
    • Evaluate both data and model
      • Reproducibility of data
      • Validity of model
models laws theories1
Models, LAWS, Theories
  • Rule of nature
  • Sums up related observations
  • Describes pattern in nature
    • Conservation laws, Law of reflection
  • Do NOT explain why things happen
models laws theories2
Models, Laws, THEORIES
  • Explanation based on many observations
  • Based on experimental results
  • May be explanations of laws
  • Only a well supported explanation
  • Theory of Universal Gravitation, Atomic Theory
1 2 measurement
1.2 Measurement
  • Comparison between a standard and unknown quantity
  • Often reported with uncertainty
  • If values overlap within uncertainty, data agrees
    • Figure 1-10, pg 12
precision versus accuracy
PRECISION versus Accuracy
  • Degree of exactness of measurement
    • Smallest amount of uncertainty is most precise
  • Depends on instrument and technique
  • Finest division on device
  • Precision is ½ smallest division
    • Graduated cylinder with 1 mL division
    • Beaker with 50 mL division
  • Shown by significant figures
precision versus accuracy1
Precision versus ACCURACY
  • Describes how well measurements agree with the accepted value
  • Real value versus Accepted value
    • Can you ever know the exact measurement?
      • Yes and no
good measurements
Good Measurements
  • Read measurements at eye level
    • Reduces error caused by parallax
  • Carefully
  • Multiple times as necessary
  • Correct device for type of measurement
1 3 graphing data
1.3 Graphing Data
  • Represent relationships between variables
  • Independent variable is manipulated
  • Dependent variable responds
  • Rule of One
line of best fit
Line of Best Fit
  • Best model of the data
  • Drawn close to all data points possible
  • Problem-solving strategies, pg 16
linear relationships
Linear Relationships
  • Dependent variable varies linearly with independent variable
  • Relationship is y=mx+b
  • Use points on the line of best fit to calculate slope and y-intercept
  • Slope = change in y over change in x
nonlinear relationships
Nonlinear Relationships
  • Quadratic
    • y = ax2 + bx + c
    • One variable depends on the square of another
  • Inverse (hyperbola)
    • y = a/x
    • One variable depends on the inverse of the other
  • Others
predicting values
Predicting Values
  • Can use the graph to make predictions
    • Interpolation
    • Extrapolation
  • Can use the equation for the graph to make predictions
slide21
Lab
  • Graphing activity – after finishing slides
  • Vernier Caliper lab – after section 2 discussion
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