The great war
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The Great War. August 1, 1914 – November 11, 1918. The Major Players. The Central Powers. The Entente . The German Empire The Austro-Hungarian Empire AKA “The Habsburg Empire” The Ottoman Empire AKA “Turkey” Bulgaria (October 1915) And on the other side…. The Russian Empire

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The Great War

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The great war

The Great War

August 1, 1914 – November 11, 1918

The major players

The Major Players

The Central Powers

The Entente

  • The German Empire

  • The Austro-Hungarian Empire

    • AKA “The Habsburg Empire”

  • The Ottoman Empire

    • AKA “Turkey”

  • Bulgaria (October 1915)

  • And on the other side…

  • The Russian Empire

  • The French Empire

  • The British Empire

  • Serbia

  • Belgium

  • Japan

  • Greece

  • Italy (1915)

  • Portugal (1916)

  • Brazil (1916)

  • Romania (1916)

  • ‘Merica (unofficial status)

Casualties what does that mean

Casualties: What does that mean?

  • France and Germany lost more than 3% of their populations

    • France – 78% of its forces suffered casualties

    • Germany – 56% of its forces suffered casualties

  • Deaths

    • 9 million died as a direct result of the war

    • 6 million died indirectly

  • In all

    • 15 million seriously injured

    • 7 million taken as POWs

  • Over 30 million casualties

Not including civilian deaths!

Or genocide.

What got the civilians the usual

What got the civilians? The usual.

  • Hunger

  • Disease

  • Flu epidemic of 1918-1919

  • The Armenian genocide

  • The Russian Revolution (and subsequent civil war)

The first total war

The First Total War

  • The military goes to the front and fights(duh).

  • The civilians produce materials for war

    • Weapons and ammunition

    • Food

    • Transportation

    • Medical treatment

    • POW camps

    • Feed for horses

  • It was supposed to be “over by Christmas.”

  • It became a war of attrition (for both people and materials).

Major patterns following wwi

Major Patterns following WWI

Busted up empires new nation states

Busted up Empires  New nation-states

  • The Central Powers and Russia

    • Poland, Hungary, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, etc.

  • Ottoman Empire

    • Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Yemen, Palestine

  • Expansion of British and French territories in the Middle East

“The Sick Old Man of Europe”

Compare and contrast

Compare and Contrast



Reorganization of governments

Reorganization of Governments

Colonial Resistance!

Communism! Fascism!

  • India

  • China

  • Korea

  • Egypt

  • Paved the way for later independence movements

  • Russian Revolution in March/February of 1917

  • Right-wing movements in reaction to post-war issues:

    • Unemployment

    • Hyperinflation

    • Repparations

In the beginning

In the Beginning

In the beginning blame it on the balkans

In the Beginning: Blame it on the Balkans

  • Serbia wanted more land for ethnic Serbs in the Balkans

  • Fought several small wars over this

  • Gained ground and started making Vienna nervous

Franz ferdinand gets taken out

Franz Ferdinand Gets Taken Out

The Archduke Franz Ferdinand

June 28, 1914

  • Visits Bosnia on Habsburg business

  • Assassinated with his wife by Serbian nationalists (aka “The Black Hand”)

Secret deals and public demands

Secret Deals and Public Demands

Secret Deals

Public Demands

  • German support promised for Austria

  • Harvests begin in earnest in Central Europe

  • Will Russia support Serbia?

  • Allow Austrian investigation

  • Cease anti-Austrian propaganda

Demands rejected.

War declared.

It all happened so fast

It all happened so fast…

  • July 28 – Austria declares war on Serbia

  • July 30 – Russia mobilizes to support Serbia

  • August 1 – Germany declares war on Russia

  • A pause

    • Germany’s location

    • The entente

  • August 3 – Germany declares war on France

  • August 4 – Great Britain declares war on Germany

  • And just like that… we’ve got a war on our hands.

In the even earlier beginning

In the even earlier beginning…

More than just the black hand

More than just the Black Hand

  • Industrialization  social changes

    • Urban migration

    • Demand for workers’ rights

  • Spread of democracy

    • Increased enfranchisement

    • Constitutional monarchy

      • Austria, Germany, Russia, Turkey

  • Realpolitik (realist foreign policy)

    • Many alliances made to stabilize power

    • Worked well from 1815 – 1914

Developing international press

Developing International Press

  • “Yellow journalism”

    • Little or no legitimate, well-researched news

    • Instead, sensationalism / nationalism to sell papers

  • Pushed rulers to extend their empires and be aggressive in their foreign policies

Kaiser Wilhelm II

Tsar Nicholas II

Germany late to the party

Germany: Late to the Party

  • Available land for overseas colonies snapped up quickly

  • Powerful economy + vocal nationalists = conflict

  • Expansion overland, not overseas

So territorial

So Territorial

  • Britain wanted to maintain its colonial dominance in Africa and Asia.

    • Feared German military’s growth and expansion

  • Russia wanted land in every direction

    • Central Asia

    • Southeast Europe

    • Ottoman territory

    • Also feared German expansion

  • Ottoman Empire

    • Slipping due to lack of industrialization

    • Antiquated military compared to other powers

    • Internal affairs meddled with by Russians, French, and British

The alliance system

The Alliance System

The Triple Alliance, 1882

Franco-Russian Alliance, 1892

  • Germany

  • Austria-Hungary

  • Italy

  • Mutual fear of German expansion

  • An attempt to balance power and keep Germany from attacking either of them

  • Britain joined in 1907

The schlieffen plan fighting a war on two fronts

The Schlieffen Plan: Fighting a War on Two Fronts

  • Developed in 1904

    • Just as Russia was wrapping up Russo-Japanese War

  • Attack France in a massive offensive and attain quick surrender

  • Shift troops to the east to face Russia

  • Depended on quick defeat and turnaround

Time s running out for schlieffen

Time’s Running Out for Schlieffen

  • France fortifying its border with Germany

  • Russia loaned money to build up its military and transportation infrastructure

  • Had to act by 1916

    or it would be too late.

The threat of mobilization

The Threat of Mobilization

  • Timing was crucial.

  • Hesitation, disastrous.

  • Mobilization of troops almost equivalent to an act of war

  • When FF killed, fear of being left behind pushed everyone into war

The chain of friendship

The Chain of Friendship

A few more things

A Few More Things

  • Invitational Meet in Rockwall on Saturday, October 26

  • Rankings by next week

  • Prepare for the battle battle.

  • Who’s bringing breakfast?

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