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Phonology: Cross-linguistic variation. LING 200 Winter 2009. Plan for today. Phonological typology Examples from Chinese and Korean Phonological rules and foreign accents Examples from Spanish and English For further learning about sounds of spoken languages: LING 450.

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Phonology: Cross-linguistic variation

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Phonology: Cross-linguistic variation

LING 200

Winter 2009


Plan for today

  • Phonological typology

    • Examples from Chinese and Korean

  • Phonological rules and foreign accents

    • Examples from Spanish and English

  • For further learning about sounds of spoken languages: LING 450

please turn off your cell phone


Phonological typology

  • = Different types of phonological systems

    • Variation in phoneme inventories

    • Variation in phonological rules

    • Variation in consonant, vowel sequencing restrictions


Mandarin (Chinese) vowel inventory

[y] = high front rounded vowel

[ɤ] = mid back unrounded vowel


Mandarin vowels

Chia-Hui Huang, Taiwanese and Mandarin speaker

[ ̂] = high falling tone


Mandarin tones

  • From

    http://www.ling.ohio-state.edu/publications/files/lf10/lf10_sounds.html

    male and female speakers


Korean vowels


Korean vowels

Sophie Ahn, from Pusan, but speaking here in Seoul (standard Korean) accent


Korean vowel length: prescriptive only


Korean glides

/w/  [ɥ] / C ___ i [ɥ] = high front rounded glide

 [ö̯] / C ___ e [ö̯] = mid front rounded glide

[u] : [w] :: [y] : [ɥ] :: [ö] : [ö̯]

[wi] ‘upper part; stomach’

[tɥi] ‘behind’

[weka] ‘maternal family, house’

[k’ö̯e] ‘idea, scheme; quite’


Korean consonants

C’ = “tense” or “fortis” (small glottal opening)

p p’ ph t t’ th k k’ kh

ts ts’ tsh

s s’ h

m n ŋ

l

w j


Korean tense consonants

[pul] ‘fire’[tɑl] ‘moon’

[p’ul] ‘horn’[t’ɑl] ‘daughter’

[phul] ‘grass’[thɑl] ‘face mask’

[ki] ‘flag’[sɑl] ‘flesh, skin’

[k’i] ‘meal’[s’ɑl] ‘raw rice’

[khi] ‘height’

/s/ = [sh]


Liquids in Korean

One liquid phoneme

/l/  [ɺ] / ___ V (unless long)

([ɺ] = alveolar lateral or retroflex flap)


Korean liquids

[ɺ] [l]

[uɺi] ‘we’ [mul] ‘water’

[kɑɺu] ‘powder’ [ilkop] ‘seven’

[ɺupi] ‘ruby’

[l:]

[tal:e] ‘wild garlic’

/l/  [ɺ] / ___ V (unless long)


Foreign accents and borrowed words

  • Foreign accents

    • learner’s phonology the culprit

    • especially if language learned as adult

  • Borrowed words

    • codified foreign accent: borrowed words pronounced according to phonology of borrowing language


The original shibboleth

  • Judges 12:5-6


Spanish consonants

p b t d k g

ʧ

f s x

m n ɲ

l

w ɾj

Notice: no /h/

/x/ = voiceless velar fricative


Spanish rhotics

[ɾ] [pɑɾɑ] ‘for’

[r] = /ɾɾ/ [pɑrɑ] ‘vine’

Word-initially, no contrast; [ɾ] usually  [r] there


Spanish loans into English

[ɣ] = voiced velar fricative


Where you can go wrong

  • Misapplying English phonology to Spanish

    • Aspiration (not in Spanish): [thɑko]

    • Plural suffix –[z]: [phɑdɹez]

    • Mid back rounded vowel not a diphthong in Spanish: [bəɹiɾoʊ]

  • Failing to learn Spanish phonology

    • voiced fricative, not stop, after vowel: [pɑðɾes]

  • Failing to learn Spanish phonetics

    • [burito] as [bəɹiɾoʊ]


No aspiration

[peso] (monetary unit of Mexico)

[beso] ‘kiss’

[tono] ‘tone’

[dono] ‘I donate’

[koðo] ‘elbow’

[goðo] ‘goth’

No mid vowel diphthongs

[rejno] ‘kingdom’ vs. [reno] ‘reindeer’


General Roca, Argentina

[xeneɾalroka]


Phonetics vs. phonology


Question

What do you think you will still remember about the phonetics/phonology part of this class 5 years from now?


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