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ROE Case Study: Defending Against Suicide Attacks. Sri Lanka. United Kingdom. Pakistan. Yemen. United States. Afghanistan. Iraq. Introduction. Rules of Engagement (ROE) critical to effective defense Must comply with the law relevant in: internal disturbances & tensions

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roe case study defending against suicide attacks

ROE Case Study:Defending Against Suicide Attacks

Sri Lanka

United Kingdom

Pakistan

Yemen

United States

Afghanistan

Iraq

introduction
Introduction
  • Rules of Engagement (ROE) critical to effective defense
  • Must comply with the law relevant in:
    • internal disturbances & tensions
    • internal armed conflict
    • international armed conflict
strategic operational tactical considerations
Strategic, Operational, Tactical Considerations
  • Civilian leadership approval of ROE
    • weigh protection of civilians & soldiers against probability of incidental injury and collateral damage
  • Military commanders use ROE to give guidance on force to be used
strategic operational tactical considerations1
Strategic, Operational, Tactical Considerations
  • ROE define:
    • When, where, how much force
    • Who is authorized to decide
    • to accomplish mission, defend self & others
    • & minimize “friendly-fire”
strategic operational tactical considerations2
Strategic, Operational, Tactical Considerations
  • ROE must be constantly reviewed during operations
unit self defense roe
Unit Self-Defense ROE
  • Basis: UN Charter Article 51
  • Requirements: Necessity & Proportionality
  • Necessity: hostile act but also hostile intent ?
unit self defense roe1
Unit Self-Defense ROE
  • Proportionate Force
    • U.S. definition
    • “shoot-to-wound” or “shoot-to-stop”?
unit self defense roe2
Unit Self-Defense ROE
  • U.S. Self-Defense ROE:
    • When possible, warn & give opportunity to withdraw
    • attack when only prudent means available
    • pursue only if hostile act or hostile intent continues
  • Tactics,

Techniques, &

Procedures

roe defending against suicide attacks on land
ROE: Defending Against Suicide Attacks on Land
  • Checkpoint or Roadblock
  • Deliberate or Hasty
  • Factors:
    • Mission
    • Enemy
    • Terrain
    • Troops Available
    • Time
    • Civilians

Army FM3-21.9

roe defending against suicide attacks on land1
ROE: Defending Against Suicide Attacks on Land
  • Warn, fire upon if necessary
  • When possible use escalating measures
  • Lethal force as last resort
attacks on land tactics techniques procedures
Attacks on Land:Tactics, Techniques, Procedures
  • Position
  • Fields of fire
  • Create barriers
  • Post signs
  • Shout warnings
  • Combat vehicles
  • Safe distance

Army FM3-21.9

attacks on land tactics techniques procedures1
Attacks on Land:Tactics, Techniques, Procedures
  • Detection dogs
  • Heavy clothing
  • Hands in pockets
  • Low-riding vehicle
  • Order people out
  • Public awareness
slide14

Terrain

Airport

Mansour District

Roadblock 541

slide15

Roadblock 541

“Route Vernon”

Airport Road

slide16

Alert line

Roadblock 541

N

Warning line

  • Blocking vehicle to alert line =118m
  • Blocking vehicle to warning line = 83 m
  • Length of ramp = 223m

Route Vernon overpass

Airport Road

Not to scale

slide18

Alert line

Roadblock 541

  • Blocking vehicle to alert line =118m
  • Blocking vehicle to warning line = 83 m
  • Blocking vehicle to disabled vehicle stop point = 38m
  •   Disabled vehicle stop point to warning line = 45m
  • Length of ramp = 223m

Warning line

Route Vernon overpass

Airport Road

roe for convoy patrol against suicide attacks
ROE for Convoy & PatrolAgainst Suicide Attacks
  • Establish minimum safe distance
  • Warn, fire upon if necessary
  • When possible, use escalating measures
roe against suicide boat attack
ROE Against Suicide Boat Attack
  • Set minimum safe distances
  • Escalated warnings
  • Open fire if necessary
  • Tactics:
    • In port
    • Weapons
    • Foreign port
    • Picket boats
roe against suicide planes
ROE Against Suicide Planes
  • Warn, fire upon if necessary
  • Tactics:
    • Air defense identification zones
    • No-fly zones
    • Integrate radar
    • Combat air patrol, anti-aircraft units
    • Evacuate civilians
common issues
Common Issues
  • Who decides to shoot?
  • How much force?
  • Use of warnings?
  • Balance effective use of force against risk of mistake
training considerations
Training Considerations
  • General Training
  • Scenario Briefings
  • Situational Exercises
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