Roe case study defending against suicide attacks
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ROE Case Study: Defending Against Suicide Attacks. Sri Lanka. United Kingdom. Pakistan. Yemen. United States. Afghanistan. Iraq. Introduction. Rules of Engagement (ROE) critical to effective defense Must comply with the law relevant in: internal disturbances & tensions

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ROE Case Study: Defending Against Suicide Attacks

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Roe case study defending against suicide attacks

ROE Case Study:Defending Against Suicide Attacks

Sri Lanka

United Kingdom

Pakistan

Yemen

United States

Afghanistan

Iraq


Introduction

Introduction

  • Rules of Engagement (ROE) critical to effective defense

  • Must comply with the law relevant in:

    • internal disturbances & tensions

    • internal armed conflict

    • international armed conflict


Strategic operational tactical considerations

Strategic, Operational, Tactical Considerations

  • Civilian leadership approval of ROE

    • weigh protection of civilians & soldiers against probability of incidental injury and collateral damage

  • Military commanders use ROE to give guidance on force to be used


Strategic operational tactical considerations1

Strategic, Operational, Tactical Considerations

  • ROE define:

    • When, where, how much force

    • Who is authorized to decide

    • to accomplish mission, defend self & others

    • & minimize “friendly-fire”


Strategic operational tactical considerations2

Strategic, Operational, Tactical Considerations

  • ROE must be constantly reviewed during operations


Unit self defense roe

Unit Self-Defense ROE

  • Basis: UN Charter Article 51

  • Requirements: Necessity & Proportionality

  • Necessity: hostile act but also hostile intent ?


Unit self defense roe1

Unit Self-Defense ROE

  • Proportionate Force

    • U.S. definition

    • “shoot-to-wound” or “shoot-to-stop”?


Unit self defense roe2

Unit Self-Defense ROE

  • U.S. Self-Defense ROE:

    • When possible, warn & give opportunity to withdraw

    • attack when only prudent means available

    • pursue only if hostile act or hostile intent continues

  • Tactics,

    Techniques, &

    Procedures


Roe defending against suicide attacks on land

ROE: Defending Against Suicide Attacks on Land

  • Checkpoint or Roadblock

  • Deliberate or Hasty

  • Factors:

    • Mission

    • Enemy

    • Terrain

    • Troops Available

    • Time

    • Civilians

Army FM3-21.9


Roe defending against suicide attacks on land1

ROE: Defending Against Suicide Attacks on Land

  • Warn, fire upon if necessary

  • When possible use escalating measures

  • Lethal force as last resort


Attacks on land tactics techniques procedures

Attacks on Land:Tactics, Techniques, Procedures

  • Position

  • Fields of fire

  • Create barriers

  • Post signs

  • Shout warnings

  • Combat vehicles

  • Safe distance

Army FM3-21.9


Attacks on land tactics techniques procedures1

Attacks on Land:Tactics, Techniques, Procedures

  • Detection dogs

  • Heavy clothing

  • Hands in pockets

  • Low-riding vehicle

  • Order people out

  • Public awareness


Incident at roadblock 541 baghdad airport road march 2005

Incident at Roadblock 541:Baghdad Airport Road, March, 2005


Roe case study defending against suicide attacks

Terrain

Airport

Mansour District

Roadblock 541


Roe case study defending against suicide attacks

Roadblock 541

“Route Vernon”

Airport Road


Roe case study defending against suicide attacks

Alert line

Roadblock 541

N

Warning line

  • Blocking vehicle to alert line =118m

  • Blocking vehicle to warning line = 83 m

  • Length of ramp = 223m

Route Vernon overpass

Airport Road

Not to scale


Incident at roadblock 541 baghdad airport road march 20051

Incident at Roadblock 541:Baghdad Airport Road, March, 2005

Giuliana Sgrena

Nicola Calipari


Roe case study defending against suicide attacks

Alert line

Roadblock 541

  • Blocking vehicle to alert line =118m

  • Blocking vehicle to warning line = 83 m

  • Blocking vehicle to disabled vehicle stop point = 38m

  •   Disabled vehicle stop point to warning line = 45m

  • Length of ramp = 223m

Warning line

Route Vernon overpass

Airport Road


Roe for convoy patrol against suicide attacks

ROE for Convoy & PatrolAgainst Suicide Attacks

  • Establish minimum safe distance

  • Warn, fire upon if necessary

  • When possible, use escalating measures


Roe against suicide boat attack

ROE Against Suicide Boat Attack

  • Set minimum safe distances

  • Escalated warnings

  • Open fire if necessary

  • Tactics:

    • In port

    • Weapons

    • Foreign port

    • Picket boats


Roe against suicide planes

ROE Against Suicide Planes

  • Warn, fire upon if necessary

  • Tactics:

    • Air defense identification zones

    • No-fly zones

    • Integrate radar

    • Combat air patrol, anti-aircraft units

    • Evacuate civilians


Common issues

Common Issues

  • Who decides to shoot?

  • How much force?

  • Use of warnings?

  • Balance effective use of force against risk of mistake


Training considerations

Training Considerations

  • General Training

  • Scenario Briefings

  • Situational Exercises


Conclusion

Conclusion


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