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ROE Case Study: Defending Against Suicide Attacks. Sri Lanka. United Kingdom. Pakistan. Yemen. United States. Afghanistan. Iraq. Introduction. Rules of Engagement (ROE) critical to effective defense Must comply with the law relevant in: internal disturbances & tensions

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Roe case study defending against suicide attacks

ROE Case Study:Defending Against Suicide Attacks

Sri Lanka

United Kingdom

Pakistan

Yemen

United States

Afghanistan

Iraq


Introduction
Introduction

  • Rules of Engagement (ROE) critical to effective defense

  • Must comply with the law relevant in:

    • internal disturbances & tensions

    • internal armed conflict

    • international armed conflict


Strategic operational tactical considerations
Strategic, Operational, Tactical Considerations

  • Civilian leadership approval of ROE

    • weigh protection of civilians & soldiers against probability of incidental injury and collateral damage

  • Military commanders use ROE to give guidance on force to be used


Strategic operational tactical considerations1
Strategic, Operational, Tactical Considerations

  • ROE define:

    • When, where, how much force

    • Who is authorized to decide

    • to accomplish mission, defend self & others

    • & minimize “friendly-fire”


Strategic operational tactical considerations2
Strategic, Operational, Tactical Considerations

  • ROE must be constantly reviewed during operations


Unit self defense roe
Unit Self-Defense ROE

  • Basis: UN Charter Article 51

  • Requirements: Necessity & Proportionality

  • Necessity: hostile act but also hostile intent ?


Unit self defense roe1
Unit Self-Defense ROE

  • Proportionate Force

    • U.S. definition

    • “shoot-to-wound” or “shoot-to-stop”?


Unit self defense roe2
Unit Self-Defense ROE

  • U.S. Self-Defense ROE:

    • When possible, warn & give opportunity to withdraw

    • attack when only prudent means available

    • pursue only if hostile act or hostile intent continues

  • Tactics,

    Techniques, &

    Procedures


Roe defending against suicide attacks on land
ROE: Defending Against Suicide Attacks on Land

  • Checkpoint or Roadblock

  • Deliberate or Hasty

  • Factors:

    • Mission

    • Enemy

    • Terrain

    • Troops Available

    • Time

    • Civilians

Army FM3-21.9


Roe defending against suicide attacks on land1
ROE: Defending Against Suicide Attacks on Land

  • Warn, fire upon if necessary

  • When possible use escalating measures

  • Lethal force as last resort


Attacks on land tactics techniques procedures
Attacks on Land:Tactics, Techniques, Procedures

  • Position

  • Fields of fire

  • Create barriers

  • Post signs

  • Shout warnings

  • Combat vehicles

  • Safe distance

Army FM3-21.9


Attacks on land tactics techniques procedures1
Attacks on Land:Tactics, Techniques, Procedures

  • Detection dogs

  • Heavy clothing

  • Hands in pockets

  • Low-riding vehicle

  • Order people out

  • Public awareness


Incident at roadblock 541 baghdad airport road march 2005
Incident at Roadblock 541:Baghdad Airport Road, March, 2005


Terrain

Airport

Mansour District

Roadblock 541


Roadblock 541

“Route Vernon”

Airport Road


Alert line

Roadblock 541

N

Warning line

  • Blocking vehicle to alert line =118m

  • Blocking vehicle to warning line = 83 m

  • Length of ramp = 223m

Route Vernon overpass

Airport Road

Not to scale


Incident at roadblock 541 baghdad airport road march 20051
Incident at Roadblock 541:Baghdad Airport Road, March, 2005

Giuliana Sgrena

Nicola Calipari


Alert line

Roadblock 541

  • Blocking vehicle to alert line =118m

  • Blocking vehicle to warning line = 83 m

  • Blocking vehicle to disabled vehicle stop point = 38m

  •   Disabled vehicle stop point to warning line = 45m

  • Length of ramp = 223m

Warning line

Route Vernon overpass

Airport Road


Roe for convoy patrol against suicide attacks
ROE for Convoy & PatrolAgainst Suicide Attacks

  • Establish minimum safe distance

  • Warn, fire upon if necessary

  • When possible, use escalating measures


Roe against suicide boat attack
ROE Against Suicide Boat Attack

  • Set minimum safe distances

  • Escalated warnings

  • Open fire if necessary

  • Tactics:

    • In port

    • Weapons

    • Foreign port

    • Picket boats


Roe against suicide planes
ROE Against Suicide Planes

  • Warn, fire upon if necessary

  • Tactics:

    • Air defense identification zones

    • No-fly zones

    • Integrate radar

    • Combat air patrol, anti-aircraft units

    • Evacuate civilians


Common issues
Common Issues

  • Who decides to shoot?

  • How much force?

  • Use of warnings?

  • Balance effective use of force against risk of mistake


Training considerations
Training Considerations

  • General Training

  • Scenario Briefings

  • Situational Exercises



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