The rebellions of 1837
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THE REBELLIONS OF 1837. Time for change to a more fair government. The government could not be changed from within The powers of the Chateau Clique and the Family Compact were impossible to weaken. Reformers in Upper and Lower Canada stayed in close contact

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The rebellions of 1837

THE REBELLIONS OF 1837

Time for change to a more fair government


The government could not be changed from within

The powers of the Chateau Clique and the Family Compact were impossible to weaken


Reformers in Upper and Lower Canada stayed in close contact

Change in one colony would help bring change in the others


  • Mackenzie and Papineau prepared for armed attacks

  • British did not have enough troops to fight back everywhere


Lower canada
LOWER CANADA

  • Strong nationalist feelings

    • Support from almost all French-Canadians

    • The Church opposed the Rebellion

      • Many French Canadians were reluctant to go against the churches

  • The Fils de la Liberte (Sons of Liberty) led the revolt in Lower Canada


  • PROBLEM:

    • Lack of organization

    • Lack of support from the Catholic Church


  • Upper canada
    UPPER CANADA

    • Wanted an American-style democracy

      • Divided supporters

        • For many British Canadians, the US was the enemy

    • BUT, people wanted a better government

    • The new governor, FRANCIS BOND HEAD sided with the Family Compact and was very strict


    Rebellion
    REBELLION!

    • Mackenzie thought soldiers were in Lower Canada fighting

      • Toronto would be undefendedeasy to overtake

        • Could take over arms and ammunition

          and take Bond Head prisoner


    Defeat of the rebellion of upper canada
    DEFEAT OF THE REBELLION OF UPPER CANADA

    WHY?:

    Not enough men

    Little military experience

    Poor planning

    Mackenzie escaped to the US disguised as a woman


    Homework
    HOMEWORK:

    Read pp. 42-45


    Punishing the rebels
    PUNISHING THE REBELS

    The rebels who survived

    and were caught would have

    been punished severely


    The gallows
    THE GALLOWS

    • Under British law, over a hundred crimes were punished by death

    • After the Rebellions, the major leaders were publicly hanged


    Convict ships
    CONVICT SHIPS

    • Others were transported to Bermuda or Australia for seven years

      • Many people died

      • Similar to conditions on the coffin ships


    Slave labour
    SLAVE LABOUR

    • If they arrived, the prisoners were used as slave labour

      • Worked on plantations and on government projects

        • Given little food

        • Treated very badly


    Britain wakes up
    BRITAIN WAKES UP

    • After the Rebellions, Britain realized they needed to change the government in the colonies

      • Send some people to investigate

        • Led by Lord Durham


    Lord durham
    LORD DURHAM

    • More independent from the Clique and the Compact

    • More progressive (willing to change)

      • Treated the rebels as lightly as possible

    • Very prejudiced against the French

    • Had little support. Why?

      • The people who had fought the rebels and whose property was damaged were angry.

      • The French

        Durham resigns


    Lord durham s report
    LORD DURHAM’S REPORT

    • Recommended that the Canadas join together and that responsible government was introduced

    • Later, all British North American colonies should join together (New Brunswick, PEI, Nova Scotia, etc.)

      • WHO WOULD NOT BE HAPPY?

        • THE FRENCH!


    The union
    THE UNION

    • Durham convinced the British that democracy was needed to ensure peace in Canada

    • Responsible government: not full democracy or independence:

      • Elected assembly in charge of internal affairs (taxation, etc.)

      • British still in control of foreign affairs and military



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