A proposed theoretical model for m learning adoption in the developing countries
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Andrea Barker, Greig Krull and Brenda Mallinson Department of information system, Rhodes university, South Africa http://www.mlearn.org.za/CD/papers/Barker.pdf. A proposed theoretical model for m-learning adoption in the developing countries . Presented by Salahadin Seid (08305202)

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A proposed theoretical model for m learning adoption in the developing countries

Andrea Barker, Greig Krull and Brenda Mallinson

Department of information system, Rhodes university, South Africa

http://www.mlearn.org.za/CD/papers/Barker.pdf

A proposed theoretical model for m-learning adoption in the developing countries.

Presented by

Salahadin Seid (08305202)

MTech CSE


Outline

Outline

Introduction

Current uses of wireless technologies in education

Impact of wireless technologies on education

The potential for M-learning in Africa

Proposed model

Remarks and future works


1 introduction

1.Introduction

mobile learning "mLearning", it refer to learning with mobile devices.

Wireless technologies are revolutionizing education , transforming the traditional ways of learning and teaching to ‘any time’ and ‘any place’ education .

Empirical studies have reported the advantages of using wireless technologies in learning environments, including supporting group work on projects, engaging learners in learning-related activates in diverse physical locations, and enhancing communication and collaborative learning in the class room .

Limited research has been conducted on the potential of wireless technology for educational use in developing counties. But using wireless technologies in education contribute to combating the digital divide in the developing countries, as this technology cheaper than desktop computers.


2 current uses of wireless technologies in education

2.Current uses of wireless technologies in education

According to the British educational communication and technology agency (BECTA) (2004), handhelds are useful where learners need to record information during a lesson, but where moving to Desktop computer would be impractical.

Sharing writing ( file can be moved easily between handhelds)

Working on individual pieces work around the table (face to face ,but not Desktop computers)

They extend the learning environment beyond the class room, as they are portable, support paperless class room ,and provide additional methods of communication.


3 impact of wireless technologies on education

3.Impact of wireless technologies on education

  • Mobile technology extends learning beyond the walls of classrooms and it has the benefits for learners, parents and teachers.

  • Portability – the most important of which to learners and teachers is the opportunity to take learning experience outside of the confines the class room, a field trip and outside school environment .

  • Collaboration – allow learner groups to distribute ,aggregate and share information. According to Becta (2004) , the use of wireless technologies results in parents’ increased involvement in education.

    3.Motivation – according to Vahey and Crawford (2003), learners using handheld wireless technologies demonstrate an increased autonomy in learning, increased self-directness in learning.


4 the potential for m learning in africa

4.The potential for M-learning in Africa

Africa has many developing nations that are technologically far behind the developed world.

This lack of technological development has a detrimental effect on the education sector. As a result, young people in the developing countries face challenges, which make it difficult for the next generation to catch up with developed world.


A proposed theoretical model for m learning adoption in the developing countries

According to Jensen (2002), of the approximately 816 million people in Africa in 2001,it is estimated that

1 in 13 have TV

1 in 35 have a mobile phone

1 in 40 have fixed line

1 in 130 have a pc

1 in 160 use the Internet

Generally the level of technology penetration in Africa is low compared to developed countries, because the general population can not afford it (BEUTE 2004).


A proposed theoretical model for m learning adoption in the developing countries

The table above shows More people in Africa have mobile phones, in comparison to fixed lines, indicates the potential for m-learning in Africa.


A proposed theoretical model for m learning adoption in the developing countries

The study conducted by Thornton et al(2004) show that the wireless technologies such as mobile phones and PDAs can be effictive tools for delivering foreign language (English) learning materials to learners.

This could be particularly beneficial in developing countries like South Africa, where many learners are not educated in their home language.


A proposed theoretical model for m learning adoption in the developing countries

5.Proposed model

This paper provide recommendation and proposes a model for adoption of

M-learning in developing countries.

5.1 Recommendation for adoption of M-learning

  • When considering the adoption of wireless technologies in education ,schools need to ensure that learners, teachers and parents are involved as much as possible in the planning mobile learning initiatives.

  • The school also provide support and training in order to make success of m-learning.


A proposed theoretical model for m learning adoption in the developing countries

5.2 proposed model and discussion

Fig 1 : Model for M-learning adoption


A proposed theoretical model for m learning adoption in the developing countries

5.2.1 stakeholders

  • The stakeholder in the proposed model include

  • Learners

  • parents -

  • Teachers

  • System designers (execute on the device – include both software developer and hardware manufacturers)

  • device venders (sell the devices )

  • support staff.


A proposed theoretical model for m learning adoption in the developing countries

5.2.2 critical success factors

  • Interactivity – the amount of interaction between the learner using mobile devices

  • Coordination

  • negotiation and communication

  • organization of material

  • mobility.


A proposed theoretical model for m learning adoption in the developing countries

6 The future work

  • Guideline and polices need to be in place to ensure the successful adoption of m-learning

  • Analyzing the technical capabilities of different wireless technologies and determining their suitability to m-learning environment .


Thank you

Thank you


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