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UNCLASSIFIED. USAFRICOM Case Study TRANSCOM JDPAC. UNCLASSIFIED. (25 Feb 09). Overview. UNCLASSIFIED. Background Mobility Challenges Discussion Requirements Infrastructure DPS Extension. UNCLASSIFIED. Background. UNCLASSIFIED. Case Study Purpose

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Usafricom case study transcom jdpac l.jpg

UNCLASSIFIED

USAFRICOM Case StudyTRANSCOM JDPAC

UNCLASSIFIED

(25 Feb 09)


Overview l.jpg
Overview

UNCLASSIFIED

  • Background

  • Mobility Challenges

  • Discussion

    • Requirements

    • Infrastructure

    • DPS Extension

UNCLASSIFIED


Background l.jpg
Background

UNCLASSIFIED

  • Case Study Purpose

    • Determine impact of AFRICOM on mobility system

    • Extend DPS insights to African continent

  • AFRICOM Background

    • Established in Feb 2007, FOC 1Q FY09

    • 191 transition team personnel FY07

    • 1600+ personnel in FY10

    • Organized by regions aligned with the African Union

    • Challenged by continent andCONUS/OCONUS nature of HQ

UNCLASSIFIED


Mobility challenges l.jpg
Mobility Challenges

UNCLASSIFIED

Argentina

United States

China

Western Europe

Chicago—Honolulu: 4250 miles

New York—Moscow: 4674 miles

Tunis

  • Key Mobility challenges in Africa

    • Distance

    • Culture

    • Infrastructure

    • Fuel

    • Business Practices

    • Environment

Dakar

4,365 miles – Dakar to Mogadishu

Mogadishu

4,885 miles – Tunis to Cape Town

Cape Town

UNCLASSIFIED


Requirements l.jpg
Requirements

UNCLASSIFIED

  • Strategic lift requirements remain constant

    • AFRICOM HQ remains consolidated

    • SSSP and historic data have similar strategic lift

  • Theater lift may increase when engagement increases

    • Focus on dispersing pax/cargo using organic and commercial assets

    • Increased staff travel volume/frequency to Africa, with increased engagement deeper into AOR

      • Regional Integration Teams (RITs) on indefinite hold

      • Commercial lift available to major population centers, but infrequent and not interconnected (i.e., return to Europe between stops)

      • Lack of DOD-certified commercial carriers on continent

  • Stand up of AFRICOM will not impact peak demand for lift; steady state requirement small relative to overall demand

UNCLASSIFIED


Infrastructure l.jpg
Infrastructure

UNCLASSIFIED

  • Increased focus on Africa JDDE infrastructure

    • AFRICOM En Route Infrastructure Steering Committee

    • Expect increase in air and sea port survey requests

  • Airlift - coverage/reach not an issue

    • 2,000nm range sufficient to reach most locations from 2 airfields

    • Overflight & airfield facilities will be limiting factors

  • Sealift - very few deep water ports (LMSR capable)

    • SDDC surveyed 29 ports in 21 countries; only 4 green in all categories

    • Assessment of all ports by length/depth looking at 3 ship types

      • Only a few countries better than base line based on number of berths

Note: Did not consider overflight for reach

Only considered runway length/width for accessibility

UNCLASSIFIED


Infrastructure cont l.jpg
Infrastructure (cont)

UNCLASSIFIED

  • Surface infrastructure presents mobility challenges

    • Limited strategic off-load infrastructure/capability

    • Road and Rail throughput capability limited/poor and not well connected

  • Current PREPO options are limited

    • Few land storage candidates have been identified (climate, political stability)

    • Afloat PREPO candidates limited by SPODS and coast to point of need distance

  • African Fuels Initiative - contracts for total quantity

    • Expect to bring our own fuel

    • Refining capacity shrinking and demand increasing

UNCLASSIFIED


Dps extension to continent l.jpg
DPS Extension to Continent

UNCLASSIFIED

  • Assessment of all countries and regions based on sea access, roads, rail, inland waterways, water, and fuel

    • Compare infrastructure in to assess ability to deploy and sustain DPS-like operation

    • Each category subjectively evaluated on 1-3 scale

      • Not a thorough assessment of each category (e.g., miles of roads, not size/quality)

    • Weight each category for overall score

    • Ivory Coast and Nigeria have highest score (58)

UNCLASSIFIED


Dps extension by country l.jpg
DPS Extension - By Country

UNCLASSIFIED

North Region

West Region

East Region

Central Region

South Region


Conclusion l.jpg
Conclusion

UNCLASSIFIED

  • AFRICOM steady state requirements will not drive peak demand

  • Current mobility assets generally unsuited for deploying/sustaining large scale operation in Africa

    • Trade off between size of operation, African infrastructure/access, and mobility force structure

UNCLASSIFIED


Questions l.jpg

UNCLASSIFIED

Questions

UNCLASSIFIED


Review of case study research l.jpg
Review of Case Study Research

UNCLASSIFIED

  • Review of Steady State Demand

    • Airlift (Channel, CENTCOM HOA, and others) and Sealift Movements

  • AFRICOM-based Defense Planning Scenarios

  • Command briefings (Transition Team, Master Plan, Air Support Requirements, OSA Assessment)

  • AFRICOM and EUCOM En Route Infrastructure Steering Committee briefings

  • SDDC/TEA and AMC studies

  • Africa Center for Strategic Studies, African Fuels Initiative

  • African Development Bank Study on Infrastructure

  • Discussions with AFRICOM (Mr. Denny D’Angelo)

  • Geospacial Integrated Digital Environment (GIDE)

  • United Nations Economic and Social Council

UNCLASSIFIED


Cocom manpower summary fy 2008 l.jpg
COCOM Manpower Summary (FY 2008)

UNCLASSIFIED

Back

(A/O 16 0001Z Oct 07)

OPR: TCJ5/4

UNCLASSIFIED

From AFRICOM Discussion brief, Defense Senior Leadership Council meeting held 1 October 2007

Legend

6,000

Legend

Active Military

5334

5182

Civilian

Active Military (authorized JTD)

Contractor

Civilian (authorized JTD)

462

5,000

Contractor (command provided)

Individual Augmentees (IA)

FSNs

Individual Augmentees (IA)

4170

FSNs

3871

3788

4,000

2,265

249

3350

24

1,205

2989

531

413

1,162

3,000

2693

2710

220

2429

715

2302

585

4,872

1,084

61

810

1,292

915

859

309

1772

2,000

456

770

1543

157

433

326

500

2,937

747

412

577

947

583

209

2,376

1,000

447

1,743

1,728

1,635

1,555

1,063

1,031

1,021

977

796

684

0

EUCOM

JFCOM

SOCOM

NORAD NORTHCOM

PACOM

AFRICOM (≤)

CENTCOM

Joint Staff

NATO

TRANSCOM

STRATCOM

Other Joint

SOUTHCOM

13


African population distribution l.jpg
African Population Distribution

UNCLASSIFIED

Back

Sparsely Populated

Greatest Population Density

  • Population centers


C 5 access afpam 10 1403 load l.jpg
C-5 Access - AFPAM 10-1403 Load

UNCLASSIFIED

Back

Dakar Intl, Senegal

  • C-5 useable airfields

  • 2,200nm, unrefueled based on 61.3 ston

  • 2,575nm, unrefueled based on 45 ston

10-1403 Rings

2,000nm Rings

3,500nm Rings

C-5

C-17

C-130

Mombasa Intl, Kenya


C 5 access amc planning factor l.jpg
C-5 Access - AMC Planning Factor

UNCLASSIFIED

Back

Dakar Intl, Senegal

Mombasa Intl, Kenya

  • C-5 useable airfields

  • 2,000nm, unrefueled

10-1403 Rings

2,000nm Rings

3,500nm Rings

C-5

C-17

C-130


C 5 access refueled amc planning factor l.jpg
C-5 Access - Refueled AMC Planning Factor

UNCLASSIFIED

Back

Dakar Intl, Senegal

Mombasa Intl, Kenya

  • C-5 useable airfields

  • 3,500nm, refueled

10-1403 Rings

2,000nm Rings

3,500nm Rings

C-5

C-17

C-130


C 17 access afpam 10 1403 load l.jpg
C-17 Access - AFPAM 10-1403 Load

UNCLASSIFIED

Back

Dakar Intl, Senegal

Mombasa Intl, Kenya

  • C-17 useable airfields

  • 2,200nm, unrefueled based on 45 ston

10-1403 Rings

2,000nm Rings

3,500nm Rings

C-5

C-17

C-130


C 17 access amc planning factor l.jpg
C-17 Access - AMC Planning Factor

UNCLASSIFIED

Back

Dakar Intl, Senegal

Mombasa Intl, Kenya

  • C-17 useable airfields

  • 2,000nm, unrefueled

10-1403 Rings

2,000nm Rings

3,500nm Rings

C-5

C-17

C-130


C 17 access refueled amc planning factor l.jpg
C-17 Access - Refueled AMC Planning Factor

UNCLASSIFIED

Back

Dakar Intl, Senegal

Mombasa Intl, Kenya

  • C-17 useable airfields

  • 3,500nm, refueled

10-1403 Rings

2,000nm Rings

3,500nm Rings

C-5

C-17

C-130


C 130 access afpam 10 1403 load l.jpg
C-130 Access - AFPAM 10-1403 Load

UNCLASSIFIED

Back

Cairo Intl, Egypt

Dakar Intl, Senegal

Lusaka Intl, Zambia

  • C-130 useable airfields

  • 1,625nm, unrefueled based on 12 ston (B)

  • 2100nm, unrefueled based on 6 ston (P)

10-1403 Rings

1,000nm Rings

2,000nm Rings

C-5

C-17

C-130


C 130 access amc planning factor l.jpg
C-130 Access - AMC Planning Factor

UNCLASSIFIED

Back

Oran International, Algeria

Cairo International, Egypt

Dakar Intl, Senegal

Mombasa Intl, Kenya

Libreville Intl, Gabon

Windhoek Airport, Namibia

  • C-130 useable airfields

  • 1,000nm, unrefueled

10-1403 Rings

1,000nm Rings

2,000nm Rings

C-5

C-17

C-130


C 130 access refueled amc planning factor l.jpg
C-130 Access - Refueled AMC Planning Factor

UNCLASSIFIED

Back

Dakar Intl, Senegal

Mombasa Intl, Kenya

  • C-130 useable airfields

  • 2,000nm, refueled

10-1403 Rings

1,000nm Rings

2,000nm Rings

C-5

C-17

C-130


Discussion airlift l.jpg
Discussion - Airlift

UNCLASSIFIED

Back

Dakar Intl, Senegal

Mombasa Intl, Kenya

  • Airfield coverage/reach

    • 2,000nm unrefueled range capable of reaching most of Africa from two airfields (Dakar & Mombasa)

      • C-5 & C-17 capable with standard planning loads

      • C-130 unrefueled range requires 3 airfields with standard load; can go over 2,000nm with JCA load

  • Airfield access

    • 93% of JCA-only airfields w/in50 miles of C-130 airfields

Note: Did not consider overflight for reach

Only considered runway length/width for accessibility

C-17 capable airfields

UNCLASSIFIED


Discussion sealift l.jpg
Discussion - Sealift

UNCLASSIFIED

Back

  • Assessment of SDDC surveyed ports

    • 29 ports in 21 countries

    • Looked at 3 categories (length/draft, RORO ramp, CTNR cranes)

      • 4 ports are green for all three

      • 11 ports green on two or more

      • 14 ports have no cranes; ships must be self supporting

  • UN Report not flattering

    • 80% ships more than 50 years old (vs 15% global)

    • 80 major ports account for 95% import/export

      • Problems with equipment, safety and productivity

    • Inland water transport critical, but unreliable

UNCLASSIFIED


Discussion sealift26 l.jpg
Discussion - Sealift

UNCLASSIFIED

Back

  • Assessment of all seaports using GIDE considering only length/draft

    • Did not consider other restrictions (approach, berth type, onward movement)

    • From sealift perspective, sustainment of larger force is better supported by countries rich in large berths with APS/MPS access or RO/RO or JHSV access

UNCLASSIFIED


Seaports west l.jpg
Seaports (west)

UNCLASSIFIED

Back

LMSR/FSS:

Green: No known restrictions limiting possible FSS/LMSR ops at max draft.

Yellow: Draft or LOA restrictions exist which limit FSS/LMSR ops.

Red: Draft and LOA restrictions (among others) preclude possible FSS/LMSR ops.

2

1

3

RORO Ramp:

Green: Dedicated RORO facilities or port handles RORO on regular basis.

Yellow: No RORO ramp, but apron configuration makes RORO ops possible.

Red: Port not capable of supporting RORO ops (by vessels with draft >26 ft).

4

Container Cranes:

Green: Dedicated container gantry cranes, minimum capacity 40 stons.

Yellow: Portal jib or other cranes capable of off-loading minimum 40 stons.

Red: No container cranes. Vessels must be self-sustaining.

5

6

7

8

12

13

11

10

9

14

15

16

17

18

  • Seaports


Seaports east l.jpg
Seaports (east)

UNCLASSIFIED

Back

LMSR/FSS:

Green: No known restrictions limiting possible FSS/LMSR ops at max draft.

Yellow: Draft or LOA restrictions exist which limit FSS/LMSR ops.

Red: Draft and LOA restrictions (among others) preclude possible FSS/LMSR ops.

29

RORO Ramp:

Green: Dedicated RORO facilities or port handles RORO on regular basis.

Yellow: No RORO ramp, but apron configuration makes RORO ops possible.

Red: Port not capable of supporting RORO ops (by vessels with draft >26 ft).

Container Cranes:

Green: Dedicated container gantry cranes, minimum capacity 40 stons.

Yellow: Portal jib or other cranes capable of off-loading minimum 40 stons.

Red: No container cranes. Vessels must be self-sustaining.

28

27

26

25

24

23

22

21

20

19

  • Seaports (cont)


Aps mps capable seaport l.jpg
APS/MPS Capable Seaport

UNCLASSIFIED

Back

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

23

13

14

12

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

2

1

11


Shallow draft jhsv access l.jpg
Shallow Draft (JHSV) Access

UNCLASSIFIED

Back

  • Assessment based on length/draft

  • Total 502 berths in 33 countries (top 12 shown)

UNCLASSIFIED


Seaport assessment l.jpg
Seaport Assessment

UNCLASSIFIED

Back

Ship TypeAPS/MPS Med RO/ROJHSV

Length960660393

Draft+2383617

Cntry122033

Berths55110502

  • Assessment of seaports using GIDE

    • Considering only length/draft

    • Did not consider other restrictions (approach, berth type, onward movement)

UNCLASSIFIED


Major roads in africa l.jpg
Major Roads in Africa

UNCLASSIFIED

Back

  • 80-90% transport by road, but...

    • Poorly maintained

    • Poorly connected

    • "Primary" ≠ all weather

    • 25% paved

  • Low road density

    • 6.84km/100km2

    • 12km/100km2 for Latin America


Trans africa highway network l.jpg
Trans-Africa Highway Network

UNCLASSIFIED

Back


Rail system l.jpg
Rail System

UNCLASSIFIED

Back

  • Very little interconnectivity

  • 17 countries have no rail

  • Different gauges (even in same country)

  • Rail lines poorly maintained


Discussion fuels l.jpg
Discussion - Fuels

UNCLASSIFIED

Back

Canary Islands

Ascension Island

POL < 150,000 USGs

POL 150,000 USGs – 500,000 USGs

POL > 500,000 USGs

No Contract, Unknown Fuel

  • African Fuels Initiative

    • Into-Plane/Truck contracts

    • Specify total quantity for period of contract

    • Some can be expanded

  • Limited availability

    • Refining capacity used

    • Storage unknown

  • Interior Continent

    • Resupply limited

    • Poor infrastructure

    • Politics

  • Quality issues


Fuels into plane truck contracts l.jpg
Fuels - Into Plane/Truck Contracts

UNCLASSIFIED

Back

28

Canary Islands

8

3

22

23

19

4

6,7

20

14

21

9

12

5

13

1

2

10

29

30

11

15

27

16

Ascension Island

24

31

32

18

17

26

POL < 150,000 USGs

POL 150,000 USGs – 500,000 USGs

POL > 500,000 USGs

25

No Contract, Unknown Fuel


Fuels refineries l.jpg
Fuels - Refineries

UNCLASSIFIED

Back

2 Simple

1 Bitumen

1 Complex

1 Simple

4 Simple

4 Simple

1 Simple

1 Simple

1 Complex

1 Simple

1 Simple

1 Simple

1 Simple

1 Complex

1 Simple

1 Simple

1 Simple

1 Simple

1 Simple

1 Simple

1 Simple

4 Simple

3 Simple

7 Simple

2 Complex

1 Simple

1 Complex

1 Simple

1 Simple

1 Simple

4 Complex




African fresh water l.jpg
African Fresh Water

UNCLASSIFIED

Back



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