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Juvenile Delinquency in Latvia PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Juvenile Delinquency in Latvia. Dr. Andrejs Judins, senior researcher of the Centre for Public Policy Providus. 22.10. 2010. Criminal Law: Juveniles. Age of criminal liability – 14 Neither particular Juvenile Justice Law, nor Juvenile courts exist in Latvia

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Juvenile Delinquency in Latvia

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Juvenile DelinquencyinLatvia

Dr. Andrejs Judins,

senior researcher of the Centre for Public Policy Providus

22.10. 2010.


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Criminal Law: Juveniles

  • Age of criminal liability – 14

  • Neither particular Juvenile Justice Law, nor Juvenile courts exist in Latvia

  • Criminal Law (1998); Criminal Procedure Law (2005), provided favourable features (peculiarities) for juveniles

  • Law on the Application of Compulsory Educational Measures to Children (2002)

A.Judins, SPC Providus ©


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The official information on juvenile delinquency in Latvia is quite limited and evidently it reflects only part of processes related to the antisocial behaviour of children. It has objective reasons related to the following:

  • the latent character of crime, including juvenile delinquency (a);

  • the failure of victims to report offences that have been committed that is related to distrust in public institutions and their abilities to resolve a criminal offence and to promote the restoration of justice (b);

  • the objective impossibility of resolving several offences and of identifying offenders (c);

  • failure to report offences of juveniles that is related to the awareness that on the whole instruments of criminal justice do not correspond to needs of children and it would be better to protect the child against the reaction of the state to the offence that to turn the child over to criminal justice (d);

  • failure to report offences committed by children, considering them to be insignificant (e).

A.Judins, SPC Providus ©


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Formal approach:

Juvenile delinquency as a component of crime is a category of criminology used to the bodyof criminal offences committed by children at the age of 14 to 17, its trends at a specific time andin a specific territory.

?

What about children under 14


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In 2008 -57 475 criminal offences were registered in Latvia, while the number of criminal offences committed by juveniles amounted to 1 397.

In 2009 - 56 748 criminal offences were registered; 1038criminal offences were committed by juveniles.

In 2008 19 216persons were identified as offenders, i.e. 1 812 juveniles (9,4 %)

In 2009: 18649 persons were identified as offenders, i.e. 1383 juveniles (7,4%)

A.Judins, SPC Providus ©


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Number of juveniles and young persons(under the age of 20) in Latvia during 1990 - 2009


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Number of juveniles (14-17 y.o.) in Latvia during 2005 - 2010


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Number of juveniles who have committed criminal offencesin 2005-2009


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Structure of crimes committed by juveniles in 2005 -2009

A.Judins, SPC Providus ©


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Convicted juveniles who committed criminal offences in a group in 2005-2009


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Convicted juveniles in 2009


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500

438

450

409

383

400

373

350

320

304

300

272

275

241

243

239

number

250

199

191

189

200

149

162

162

142

150

166

127

158

105

109

142

140

96

134

134

100

99

94

80

64

50

53

0

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

year

total

detention

sentenced

Juveniles in Prison

A.Judins, SPC Providus ©

Source: Latvian prison administration


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Legislative reform:Promising practice

  • Strengthen the System of Educational Compulsory measures (2010);

  • Criminal Law amendments (2009) (regarding to the deprivation of liberty), Criminal Procedure law (2005)


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Article 65 of the Criminal Law

Application of Punishment for Minors

(1) The following forms of basic punishment shall apply for minors:

1) deprivation of liberty;

2) custodial arrest;

3) community service; or

4) fine,

as well as the additional punishments provided for in this Law.

(2) For a person who has committed a criminal offence before reaching 18 years of age, the period of deprivation of liberty may not exceed: 10 years - for especially serious crimes; 5 years - for serious crimes, which are associated with violence or the threat of violence, or have given rise to serious consequences; 2 years – for other serious crimes. For criminal violations and for less serious and serious crimes the penalty of deprivation of liberty shall not be applied for such person.


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Deprivation of liberty as a punishment for juvenile offenders


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Compulsory Educational Measures

  • a warning;

  • the obligation to apologize to victims if the latter agree to meet the perpetrator;

  • to transfer the child to the warranty of parents or guardians or other persons, institutions or organisations;

  • to impose the obligation to eliminate consequences of the damage incurred by his herwork;

  • as concerns a child who has reached the age of 15 and who has his/her income – to impose the obligation to compensate for the incurred damage;

  • to impose the obligation to perform community service;

  • to place the child in an educational institution of social correction

Children from 11 to 13 years of age

Children from 14 to 17 years of age


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Promising practice

Unpaid work (Community Service):

as a Criminal Punishment

and

as a Compulsory Educational Measure


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Promising practice

Conciliation as an instrument for Justice Restoration (VOM, Conferencing (2009)

State Probation Service

(2004)

Programs of social behaviour and rehabilitation


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Thank you!

[email protected]


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