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CLIMATE CHANGE VULNERABILITY AND ADAPTATION IN COLOMBIA. INSTITUTE FOR THE STUDIES OF THE AMERICAS Course Environment and Development in Latin America 20th January 2009 Andrea Lampis CIDER Universidad de Los Andes Bogotá (Colombia) Contact: : alampis@uniandes.edu.co.

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CLIMATE CHANGE VULNERABILITY AND ADAPTATION IN COLOMBIA

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Climate change vulnerability and adaptation in colombia l.jpg

CLIMATE CHANGE VULNERABILITYAND ADAPTATION IN COLOMBIA

INSTITUTE FOR THE STUDIES OF THE AMERICAS

Course

Environment and Development in Latin America

20th January 2009

Andrea Lampis

CIDER

Universidad de Los Andes

Bogotá (Colombia)

Contact:: alampis@uniandes.edu.co


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Paper key facts and agenda

  • Purpose: case study – low coastal city of Tumaco

  • Main research question: Which are the main constraints facing people’s livelihoods towards adaptation to climate change and its likely effects?

  • Relationship with the broader debate

  • Methodology

  • Existing evidence about climate change and disasters

  • The relationship between people’s livelihoods, the sea and, more broadly the environment

  • Vulnerability and constraints towards livelihoods adaptation

  • Conclusions


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Case study research design

Exploratory case study

Explore a complex reality within real life settings

Setting and units of analysis are changing while the study is being carried out

Incomplete or scant evidence

Combine different methods and sources:

Historical records and data

Participatory appraisal

Secondary data

Qualitative interviews

Structured questionnaires

Photographic evidence

House-poles on the Los Puentes neighbourhood – Source :Lampis, A.


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Relationship with the broader academic debate

  • Low Coastal Areas Urban Settlements exposure to climate change

  • Feature of climate change impacts and implications

  • Dual IPCC UNFCCC mitigation - adaptation approach

  • Adaptation in Developing countries and especially in LDCs and areas

Liquation risk categorization map of Tumaco Source: CLOPAD (2004), ‘Plan Local de Emergencias San Andrés de Tumaco, DPAD: Bogotá and Tumaco.


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  • 60 % of interviewed households affected by a flood related event over the previous 12 months.

  • 52% are internally displace households.

  • 58.6% have an illegal water provision generally using a long pipe from a more inland house, 41.4% have to carry the water.

  • 80% have no waste recollection service

Existing evidence about climate change and environmental risks

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House-poles on the Las Américas neighbourhood – Source: Lampis, A


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Earthquakes and tsunamis

Source: Rodriguéz-Rubio and López-Isaza (2007)


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Environmental degradation

Poorly controlled or uncontrolled industrial processes are interacting with natural processes increasing the speed of sedimentation of the bay

Timber industry on Tumaco Bay. Source: Lampis, A.


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Livelihoods, the sea and the environment

  • Uneven spatial and social distribution of power and control over capital & assets

  • Insecurity of livelihoods sources

  • Social exclusion

  • Lack of social protection & economic incentives

Informal work

Activities in

Tumaco – various locations.

Source: Lampis, A.


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Mapping vulnerability

Patterns

Life Events

Cause

Consequences

Strategies

(To cope, react, recuperate or to prevent life events and their impacts).

Patterns + asset level


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What can people perception teach us?

What is a disaster?

What are the principal problems preventing people from taking action in the face of a natural disaster like a tsunami or a flood?

Unemployment

Insecurity

Violence

Political disaster

Poverty

Lack of social equity

Lack of social spending in education

  • A total destruction.

  • Social distress, such as unemployment of violence

  • Political disaster


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Vulnerability & constraints for livelihoods adaptation to climate change

Tumaco is an example of how lack of how human rights, human needs and human security closely relate one to another.

House-poles on the Los Puentes neighbourhood – Source: Lampis, A. (both pictures)


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Conclusions:Where would you start to untie the knot?

Main constraints

Strategic opportunities

Political changes before than unsustainable technical solutions

Strengthen governance and accountability

Leadership of ethnic and social afro - colombian movements for identity, autonomy and economic inclusion.

Foster the use of low-cost and appropriate technologies in water and sanitation, waste disposal and ecological management.

Provide opportunities for resettle but with social protection and assets accumulation promotion

  • Historical trends of racial segregation and political exclusion.

  • Environmental degradation:

  • Economic processes

  • Political processes

  • Cultural processes


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