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Revised, 10/5/06. Buddhism. The Rise and Development of Buddhism. Indian Religion in the 6th & 5th centuries BC. Hinduism Jainism. Brahmins - priestly ritual religion. Sannyasins (wandering monks) - renunciation & yoga. Yoga combined with extreme asceticism & nonviolence.

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Buddhism l.jpg

Revised, 10/5/06

Buddhism

The Rise and Development of Buddhism


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Indian Religion in the 6th & 5th centuries BC

  • Hinduism

  • Jainism

Brahmins - priestly ritual religion

Sannyasins (wandering monks) - renunciation & yoga

Yoga combined with extreme asceticism & nonviolence


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The BuddhaSiddhartha Gautama(563-483 BC)

  • Birth

  • Youth

  • Marriage & parenthood

  • The Four Passing Sights (aging, sickness, death, renunciation)

  • The Great Renunciation

  • The Great Going Forth

  • The Great Enlightenment

  • The Great Ministry

  • The Great Decease


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Origin of Buddhism

Spread of Buddhism during the lifetime of the Buddha


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The Three Refuges(Jewels)

  • The Buddha

  • The Dharma (teachings, doctrine)

  • The Sangha (the Order)


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The Teachings of the Buddha

The Four Noble Truths


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Preface to the Four Noble Truths:The Middle Path

By avoiding these two extremes, we discover a Middle Path, a path which opens the eyes, which bestows understanding, and which leads to peace of mind, to wisdom, to full enlightenment, to Nirvana.

Two extremes to be avoided:

(1) Hedonism

(2) Asceticism

This Middle Path is the Noble Eightfold Path, namely, Right Views, Right Intent, Right Speech, Right Conduct, Right Livelihood, Right Effort, Right Mindfulness, and Right Concentration . . . .



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2. The Noble Truth of the Cause of Suffering

Tanha

*Some traditions make (c) a craving for prosperity or for personal happiness.




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Elaboration of the Noble Eightfold Path of suffering

Wisdom (prajna)

  • Right views (Samma ditthi)

  • Right intent (Samma sankappa)

  • Right speech (Samma vaca)

  • Right conduct (Samma kammanta)

  • Right livelihood (Samma ajiva)

  • Right effort (Samma vayama)

  • Right mindfulness (Samma sati)

  • Right concentration (Samma samadhi)

Morality (sila)

Meditation (samadhi)


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(Eightfold Path, continued) of suffering

Wisdom

1. Right Views

  • The Four Noble Truths

  • The doctrine of no-self (anatta, anatman)

    • Transitoriness (anicca): impermanence

    • The Five Components or Aggregates (skandhas) of human personhood

    • Interdependent Origination

  • Karma & Samsara (rebirth)

  • Nirvana (what is it?)


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(No-self, cont’d) of suffering

The Five Components (skandhas) of personhood

Body (rupa)

Person

Sensation (vedana)

Consciousness (vinnana)

Perception (sanna)

Volition (sankhara)

Mind (nama)


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It is through the five skandhas (components, attributes) of suffering

that a human being typically clings to existence and, as a result, becomes subject to suffering (dukkha).

Knowing and seeing the nature of, the origin of, and how to extinguish (end) the five components of body [corporeality], sensation, consciousness, perception, and volition brings about the cessation of selfish craving.


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So… of suffering

  • a "person" is composed of five components: four "mind" components - sensation, consciousness, perception, volition; and one physical component, i.e., the body. That's all a "person" is.

  • And, like anything else, these components are constantly changing (transitory and impermanent).

  • Note that on the list of the five "skandhas" (components), there is no "self," especially no unchanging, permanent, eternal Self (Atman).


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(No-self, cont’d) of suffering

The doctrine ofInterdependent Origination(Paticca Samuppada)

The interdependence & relativity of all things

No separate beings

No distinct individuals

No eternal essences

No "own-natures"


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According to the doctrine of interdependent origination, of suffering

  • all things arise, develop, and dissolve in relation to and in interdependence with (or dependence on) all other things.

  • Nothing has an independent (non-relative), individual, or permanent existence.

  • Thus, there is no separate, individual, unchanging, or eternal Self.


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The of suffering

12.

1.

Aging & Dying

Ignorance

2.

Wheel

of

11.

Impulse to Exist

Birth

Heaven

3.

10.

Con- scious- ness

Human Realm

Demon Realm

Becom- ing

Greed Delusion Hatred

Bhavachakra

4.

9.

Hungry Ghost Realm

Animal Realm

Mind- Body

Cling- ing

Note that the Wheel is driven by the "Three Great Poisons" at the center: greed, delusion, & hatred.

Becoming

8.

5.

Six Senses

Hell

Craving

6.

7.

Sensations

Contact


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Bhava of suffering

chakra


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(Eightfold Path, continued) of suffering

2. Right Intent(Resolution)

Wisdom

Right intent or resolution

is the intent or resolution to live & act

in accordance with right views.


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No lying of suffering

No slander

No harsh or rude talk

No profanity

No impolite or abusive language

No idle or foolish chatter

Strive to use language meaningfully & usefully, with wisdom & kindness

Learn to maintain “noble silence”

(Eightfold Path, continued)

3. Right Speech

Morality


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No harming & killing of suffering

No stealing

No lying & deceitfulness

No sexual immorality

No use of intoxicants

Eat moderately & not after noon.

Stay away from dancing, singing, & dramatic spectacles.

Do not use garlands, scents, unguents, or ornaments.

Do not use high or broad (soft) beds.

Do not accept gold or silver (money in general?).

(Eightfold Path, continued)

4. Right Conduct

Morality

The Five Precepts (for everybody) & the Ten Precepts (for monks & nuns)


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(Eightfold Path, continued) of suffering

Morality

5. Right Livelihood(Vocation)

  • Choose professions that promote life, peace, & spiritual progress (especially life in the Sangha).

  • Specifically prohibited professions: poison peddler, slave trader, prostitute, butcher, manufacturer & trader of liquor & other intoxicants, weapons manufacturer & trader, tax collector, caravan trader.


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(Eightfold Path, continued) of suffering

6. Right Effort(purification of the mind)

  • Preventing evil & unwholesome states of mind from arising

  • Getting rid of such states of mind that may already exist

  • Bringing about good & wholesome states of mind

  • Developing & perfecting good & wholesome states of mind that are already present

Meditation


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Meditation of suffering

7. Right Mindfulness

(Eightfold Path, continued)

  • Activities of the body (breathing, walking, sitting, eating, heartbeat, etc.)

  • Feelings (anger, fear, joy, pleasure, pain, etc.)

  • States of mind (thoughts, ideas, etc.)

  • Ways of conceptualizing things (the Four Noble Truths, the Wheel of Becoming, etc.)

Focusing of attention on:


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The highest level of of suffering

Meditation

One-pointed concentration

and

the four absorptions:

Detachment from all sense objects & from negative states of mind; thought processes accompanied by joy

Cessation of all mental activities; internal calm, peace of mind, joy to the point of great elation

Cessation of all passions & prejudices; continued sense of joy

Cessation of joy; total tranquillity & equanimity -- Nirvana (& arhatship)

(Eightfold Path, continued)

8. Right Concentration

Preliminary concentration on the Four Sublime Moods: love, compassion, cheerfulness, & impartiality


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Four Stages of Advancement of sufferingalong the Noble Eightfold Path

The Ten

Fetters

1 Belief in permanent self

2 Doubt

3 Belief in religious rituals

4 Sensual craving

5 Ill will

6 Desire for rebirth in worlds of form

7 Desire for rebirth in formless realms

8 Pride

9 Self-righteousness

10 Ignorance of the true nature of things

Stream-

Entrant

Once-

Returner

Non-

Returner

Overcomes 1-3

Overcomes 1-5

Arhat

Overcomes all


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The Historical Evolution of suffering

of Buddhism


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The Major Buddhist Traditions of suffering

  • Theravada(“The Way of the Elders”) - Sri Lanka & Southeast Asia

  • Mahayana(“The Greater Vehicle”) - China, Korea, & Japan (& Tibet & Mongolia)

  • Vajrayana(“The Way of the Diamond Thunderbolt”) - Tibet & Mongolia

*

*

*

Vajrayana is a development within the Mahayana tradition.


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The Early Schools of suffering

& the Rise of Theravada

(4th century BC - 1st century AD)


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Council at Rajagraha of suffering (483BC)

Council at Vaisali(383 BC)

Sthaviravada

Mahasamghika

Council at Pataliputta (247 BC)

Vibhajyavada

Sarvastivada

(c. 225 BC)

(c. 200 BC)

Theravada

Vatsiputriya

Golulika

Ekavyavaharika

Sammatiya Bhadrayamiya Dharmottariya Sammagurika

Lokottaravada

(c. 180 BC)

Bahushrutiya

Prajnaptivada

Mahisasaka Kasyapiya Dharmaguptaka

(c. 125 BC)

(c. 100 BC)

*

*

Vaibheshika

Sautrantika

*

Caitika

(c. 50 BC)

Uttarashaila

*

Aparashaila

*Contributed to rise of Mahayana


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The Rise & Development of suffering

of Mahayana (& Vajrayana)


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India of suffering

China

Japan

Tibet

Mahayana Buddhism

*

Madhyamaka (2d-3d centuries AD)

Three Treatise School

San-lun

Sanron

Ashvaghosa (1st century AD)

**

Consciousness-Only

Yogacara (3d-4th centuries AD)

Mei-shih

Hosso

Tantrayana (3d century AD)

Chen-yen

Shingon (True Word)

Vajrayana(a/k/a Tantrayana& Mantrayana)

Jodo-shu & Jodo-shin-shu

Sukhavati (Pure Land) (1st century AD)

Ching-tu

Ch’an

Ti’en-Tai (Lotus)

Hua-yen (Flower Graland)

Zen

Tendai

Nicheren Shoshu

*Nagarjuna

**Vasubandhu


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The Spread of Buddhism of suffering

Spheres of Influence

*

Buddhism out of India by 1000 AD

*

Theravada

Mahayana

Vajrayana


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