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Alcohol and alcoholism Physical effects of alcohol use Biopsychosocial effects of alcohol abuse Physical effects of alcohol use Cardiovascular benefits from 1 glass of wine per day: The French paradox? The benefits disappear at the equivalent of three glasses per day.

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alcohol and alcoholism

Alcohol and alcoholism

Physical effects of alcohol use

Biopsychosocial effects of alcohol abuse

physical effects of alcohol use
Physical effects of alcohol use
  • Cardiovascular benefits from 1 glass of wine per day: The French paradox?
  • The benefits disappear at the equivalent of three glasses per day.
  • The same benefit can be obtained from grape juice, but it takes six glasses per day: the beneficial ingredient in wine may be flavinoids rather than alcohol
is the french paradox really a paradox
Is the French paradox really a paradox?
  • Cardiovascular disease is a cumulative, delayed consequence of many factors, including diet.
  • Prior to the 1960s, the French diet was much lower in saturated fat than the American diet.
  • American “control group” studies are correlational.
  • Participants are self-assigned to groups.
other physical effects
Other physical effects
  • Gastrointestinal system
    • Dissolving of mucosal lining
    • Hemorrhagic lesions of stomach lining
    • Increased HCl secretion, secondary to lesions
    • Shortening and lesions of intestinal villi
  • Pancreas
    • Pancreatitis
    • Diabetes or reactive hypoglycemia
more physical effects
More physical effects...
  • Liver
    • Steatosis
    • Alcoholic hepatitis
    • Cirrhosis
    • Cancer
  • Cardiovascular system
    • Declining red and white blood cell counts
    • Cardiomyopathy
more physical effects6
More physical effects...
  • Central nervous system
    • Acute brain damage
    • Alcohol-induced brain damage
    • Chronic brain damage
      • Atrophy
      • Dementia
      • Nutritional deficit damage
      • Encephalopathy
approaches to alcohol use
Approaches to alcohol use
  • Total abstinence
  • Cultural uniformity
    • Israel & Italy vs. Ireland & Finland
  • Parental introduction vs. parental prohibition (Mitic, 1990)
  • Is it possible to teach controlled drinking in a culture of excess?
  • Would the FDA approve alcohol today?
alcoholism
Alcoholism
  • Definitions
  • Etiology
    • Family studies
    • Biological marker studies
    • EEG studies
    • Adoption studies
    • Twin Studies
    • Physiological theories
    • Sociocultural theories: Ledermann
treatments for alcoholism
Treatments for alcoholism
  • Controlled drinking
  • Total abstinence
  • Comorbidity problems
pharmacological support
Pharmacological support
  • Antabuse
  • Apomorphine for conditioned aversion
    • Not popular currently
  • Antipsychotics for hallucinations: Dangerous
  • Antidepressants for comorbid depression
  • Benzodiazepines for withdrawal
  • Naltrexone for craving
  • Ondansetron, a 5-HT3 antagonist, for early-onset alcoholism
  • Acamprosate, a glutamate agonist at NMDA receptors and a GABA-A agonist
abused inhalants huffing
Abused Inhalants: huffing
  • Gases: Nitrous oxide and halothane
    • Anaesthetics, propellant for whipped cream
  • Volatile liquids
    • Ether and chloroform
    • Petroleum distillates
      • Gasoline, paint thinners, toluene, butane, propane
      • Solvents: Benzene, correction fluid, markers
    • Aerosol propellants: cooking spray, stain protectors, paint (chroming, from popularity of silver and gold spray paint)
    • Nitrites: Butyl, cyclohexyl (deodorizer), propyl and amyl (poppers, snappers). Nitrites are used mainly by adults, in an attempt to enhance sexual sensations.
  • Abused inhalants cause irregular heart rhythms, and are sometimes lethal.
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