Market analysis highest and best use and vacant land
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Market Analysis, Highest and Best Use and Vacant Land. The Case Study of a 66 Acre Vacant Parcel of Land. Wayne Foss, DBA, MAI, CRE, FRICS Foss Consulting Group Email: [email protected] The Subject Property. Size:66 Acres Shape:Rectangular, almost square

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Market Analysis, Highest and Best Use and Vacant Land

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Market analysis highest and best use and vacant land

Market Analysis, Highest and Best Use and Vacant Land

The Case Study of a 66 Acre Vacant Parcel of Land

Wayne Foss, DBA, MAI, CRE, FRICS

Foss Consulting Group

Email: [email protected]


The subject property

The Subject Property

  • Size:66 Acres

  • Shape:Rectangular, almost square

  • Location:0.75 miles west of a major north-south freeway that is lined with new multistory office and retail buildings, and 0.25 miles south of a proposed northbelt loop freeway.

  • Zoning:Office and Retail uses


The purpose of the assignment

The Purpose of the Assignment

  • The Highest and Best Use of the Site

    • Facts to Consider

      • Doubtful that most probable use is as zoned

        • Many nearby office and retail buildings standing vacant

      • Only comparable sales were to users

      • Subject is probably a long-term investment

      • Truly comparable land sales may be difficult to identify because the subject’s actual use is questionable

      • Must test financial feasibility. Subject’s potential use must be tested


Market analysis highest and best use and vacant land

Site Analysis Map


Property productivity analysis site determinants of use

Property Productivity Analysis, Site Determinants of Use

  • Access

    • Three Sides, north, west and south

    • Two of the streets are major thoroughfares

    • Close to a major freeway, and will be near to a new freeway belt-loop, although there is no direct access to these freeways from the subject


Property productivity analysis site determinants of use1

Property Productivity Analysis, Site Determinants of Use

  • Physical Characteristics

    • 66 Acres, gentle slope from northeast to southwest

    • Drainage is a consideration: creek on the property

    • Noise Pollution: a 65-decibel reading was taken on the southeasterly portion of the site. Source is a nearby airport.


Property productivity analysis site determinants of use2

Property Productivity Analysis, Site Determinants of Use

  • Physical Characteristics

    • Any site plan would be primarily geared to four factors:

      • Interior road connection to Virginia Avenue

      • A detention pond encompassing at least 2.5 acres

      • Channelization of leaving the remaining drainage area in the natural floodplain

      • A minimum number of curb cuts and major access cuts onto New York Avenue or St. James Place


Property productivity analysis site determinants of use3

Property Productivity Analysis, Site Determinants of Use

  • Immediately adjacent land uses

    • Southwest and Southeast are retail and garden type office developments

    • Further southeast are office and industrial uses

    • East is a major apartment project

    • West is low density residential area

  • Looking at adjacent land uses one could infer that the front part would be retail, and the back part would be apartments, or some other type of residential (or possibly industrial) use.


Property productivity analysis site determinants of use4

Property Productivity Analysis, Site Determinants of Use

  • Zoning and Legal Constraints

    • Front Part:

      • Approximately 16 acres is general retail use

    • Rear Part:

      • Multi-story offices

    • City Planning did not reveal any obstacle to rezoning the land to apartment use or to light industrial use.

    • Zoning does not appear to present any major constraints on the land use possibilities.


Property productivity analysis site determinants of use5

Property Productivity Analysis, Site Determinants of Use

  • Conclusions:

    • Site analysis indicates that land uses would include:

      • Retail and Garden Office on southern portion

      • Apartment or medium-use-density residential on the northern portion

      • Industrial uses would also be a possibility, although development constraints, slopes and floodplain, make this use less than ideal.


Property productivity analysis location determinants of use

Property Productivity Analysis, Location Determinants of Use

  • City, Regional and Neighborhood Growth

    • Focus in terms of how it supports a mixed use development

    • Where will growth most likely occur, and how much?

    • Linkages and Land use associations

    • Economic concept; questions to be considered

      • Close to what? Far from what?

      • Access to/from what?

      • Competing with what? And where?

      • Influences by what?


Property productivity analysis location determinants of use1

Property Productivity Analysis, Location Determinants of Use

  • Area Accessibility (Linkages)

    • Streets:

      • New York Avenue & St. James Place

        • Major north-south and east-west arterial highways

      • 0.75 miles from major north-south regional freeway

    • Air transportation

      • Good access to air transportation (southeast)

      • 12 miles from major metro-area airport

    • Traffic Counts

      • currently 20,000 ADT, with forecast of 40,000 ADT in 10 to 15 yrs


Property productivity analysis location determinants of use2

Property Productivity Analysis, Location Determinants of Use

  • Area Accessibility (Linkages)

    • Future

      • Proposed east-west beltway (north)

    • Neighborhood characteristics

      • on periphery of a prestigious north metro office district

      • high income housing found within 5 miles

      • moderate income housing adjacent to subject

      • considered slightly inferior to areas east of the north-south freeway

    • Conclusions

      • access to the subject is very good

      • traffic congestion in area might be considered somewhat negative for residential uses in the near term. Highway improvements nearby may negate this problem.


Market analysis highest and best use and vacant land

Land Use Linkages Map


Property productivity analysis urban growth structure

Property Productivity Analysis, Urban Growth Structure

  • Existing Growth Pattern

    • analyze overall growth pattern in the area

      • Intensity of Use (floor area ratio)

        • number of square feet of building area per unit of land area

        • High intensity uses along the north-south freeway, and at major intersections with neighborhood collector streets

        • Lower intensity uses farther from the freeway and bordering the high intensity uses

    • Conclusion

      • marginal transitional location between

        • more intense uses toward the north-south freeway

        • less intense uses to the west.


Market analysis highest and best use and vacant land

Existing Generalized Land Use Pattern


Property productivity analysis major employment nodes

Property Productivity Analysis, Major Employment Nodes

  • Regional Nodes

  • Conclusion:

    • Existing nodes with remain dominant in the market

    • Subject not considered a part of any existing node


Property productivity analysis growth patterns zoning

Property Productivity Analysis, Growth Patterns & Zoning

  • Zoning

    • Apartment

    • Industrial - primarily toward the south

  • Neighborhood land Uses

    • Multi-family, local retail and office uses typical at major intersections

    • Low density housing to the west

  • Planned Development

    • major planned office park - south

      • park finished, but no sales of lots or project developments

      • Mall site at intersection of north-south freeway and proposed beltway


Property productivity analysis summary subject use location analysis

Property Productivity Analysis, Summary Subject Use Location Analysis


Market analysis highest and best use and vacant land

Projected Generalized Land Use Based on Location Characteristics


Market determinants of use demand and supply retail

Market Determinants of Use, Demand and Supply - Retail

  • Fundamental Analysis:

    • Estimated Average Household Income (current)$ 38,750

    • Less taxes & non-retail expenditures @ 57%$ 22,080

    • Household effective retail buying power$ 16,670

    • Estimated households in four yearsx 32,945

    • Estimated total effective retail buying power (rd)$ 549,000,000

    • Divided by dollars per SF of sales $200

    • Estimated total supportable retail space in four years2,745,000 sf

    • Economic Development Dept Estimate:3,155,000 sf

    • Conclusion:3,000,000 sf


Market determinants of use demand and supply retail1

Market Determinants of Use, Demand and Supply - Retail

  • Current Supply

    • Planning Dept. estimate:2,746,230 sf

    • Real Estate Data Co. estimate:2,306,150 sf

    • Acme Research study:2,584,000 sf

    • Conclusion:2,500,000 sf

  • Future supply

    (planned within 4 years):1,337,239 sf

    • Expected to be developed (67%) 890,966 sf


Market determinants of use demand and supply retail2

Market Determinants of Use, Demand and Supply - Retail

  • Retail Space Equilibrium Analysis

    • Estimated Demand 4 years:3,000,000 sf

    • Less estimated Supply

      • Current Inventory:2,500,000 sf

      • Planned Inventory: 890,000 sf

    • Shortage (excess) of Supply: (390,000) sf


Market determinants of use demand and supply office

Market Determinants of Use, Demand and Supply - Office


Market determinants of use demand and supply office1

Market Determinants of Use, Demand and Supply - Office

  • Current Supply

    • Planning Dept. estimate:4,100,000 sf

    • Real Estate Data Co. estimate:4,039,300 sf

  • Future supply

    (planned, uncertain start): 712,000 sf

  • Occupancy

    • Appraiser survey: 70%

    • Real Estate Data Co. estimate 76%


Market determinants of use demand and supply office2

Market Determinants of Use, Demand and Supply - Office

  • Office Space Equilibrium Analysis

    • Current Demand:2,987,105 sf

      (Including 5% frictional vacancy)

    • Less estimated Supply:4,100,000 sf

    • Shortage (excess) of Supply: (1,112,895) sf

    • Demand in 5 Years:3,640,500 sf

    • Total Current Demand:2,837,750 sf

    • Five year demand increment 802,750 sf

    • Yearly demand increment 160,550 sf


Market determinants of use demand and supply office3

Market Determinants of Use, Demand and Supply - Office

  • Office Space Equilibrium Analysis

    • Current Supply:4,100,000 sf

    • Less current demand:2,987,105 sf

    • Current Oversupply: (1,112,895) sf

    • Divided by annual growth in demand:

      1,112,895 sf ¸ 160,550 sf =

      Approximate 7 year supply


Market determinants of use demand and supply multi family

Market Determinants of Use, Demand and Supply - Multi-family

  • Population Growth (4 years):

    • Estimated:85,000

    • People per Household:(¸) 2.58

    • Total Household Demand:32,945

  • Forecast Mix of Single Family to Multi-family housing units - 65% to 35%

  • Forecast 4 year demand for multi-family

    • 32,945 units x 35% = 11,500 units


Market determinants of use demand and supply multi family1

Market Determinants of Use, Demand and Supply - Multi-family

  • Supply

    • City estimates, existing units:10,570

    • Under Construction units: 00

    • Planned within 4 years: 1,000

  • Area vacancy rates

    • General Area:13% to 14%

    • Selected Competition: 5% to 10%


Market determinants of use demand and supply multi family2

Market Determinants of Use, Demand and Supply - Multi-family

  • Equilibrium Analysis

    • Overall Market - Oversupplied

    • Competitive Market - In balance


Market determinants of use demand and supply multi family3

Market Determinants of Use, Demand and Supply - Multi-family

  • Capture Rating

    • Competitive Corner Rating suggests

      • Five corners expected to absorb faster

      • Four corners expected to absorb slower

    • Pro rata Share

      • Acreage of competitive Corners:600

      • Acreage of Subject 66

      • Total:666

      • Subject pro rata Share: 10%


Financial analysis of land use mix

Financial Analysis of Land Use Mix

  • Procedure: To each type of land use

    • Assign relative user values

    • Assign absorption estimates

  • Judgement and Experience must be applied

  • Address Uncertainty and Risk

    • adjusting the discount rate

    • uncertain land uses can be revised along more conservative lines

    • reconcile different risks and values


Three models

Three Models

  • Step One: Assign User Values

    • Discount Rate:12.0%

      (identified through separate analysis)

    • Multifamily Use:$4.00 per Square Foot

    • Retail Use:$12.00 per Square Foot

    • Office Use:$20.00 per Square Foot


Three models1

Three Models

  • Step Two: Consider Development Cost

    make adjustments if cost is significant

  • Step Three: Forecast site sales

    • or, average absorption over time

    • starts when demand exceeds supply


Market determinants of use demand and supply conclusion

Market Determinants of Use, Demand and Supply - Conclusion

  • Retail Space:4 to 5 Years

  • Office Space:5 to 8 years

  • Multi-family Units:2+ years

    • Annual demand:587 Units

    • Average Density:16 Units/Acre

    • Acreage take down:37 Acres/year

    • Capture Rating:10% of total demand

    • Acreage absorbed:apx. 4 acres/year


Three suggested models

Three Suggested Models


Discussion questions for land use mix

Discussion Questions for Land Use Mix

  • Would the conclusion be different if market research revealed the following discount rates to be appropriate?

  • Multifamily Use11.0%

  • Retail Use12.0%

  • Office Use14.0%

  • Any Use delayed 10 years or more20.0%


Market analysis highest and best use and vacant land

Highest and Best Use Concept Plan


So that s a case study vacant land

So That’s - - -A Case Study: Vacant Land

Are there any Questions?

Wayne Foss, DBA, MAI, CRE, FRICS

Fullerton, CA USA

Email: [email protected]


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