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Grading Criteria for Assigment 1. Structure – sense of time, present and past conflict with two distinct sides description of cause of conflict shared values as basis for possible reconciliation Visual – paragraph lengths similar to Lincoln

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Grading criteria for assigment 1
Grading Criteria for Assigment 1

  • Structure –

    • sense of time, present and past

    • conflict with two distinct sides

    • description of cause of conflict

    • shared values as basis for possible reconciliation

  • Visual – paragraph lengths similar to Lincoln

  • Style – formal language; long, complex sentence structure

  • Basic writing: typos, grammar, spelling

  • Creativity in topic: general “fit” with Lincoln’s essay


Types of proof
Types of Proof

  • Logical proof (logos)

  • Proof that builds credibility (ethos)

  • Emotional proof (pathos)


Types of logical proof
Types of Logical Proof

  • Argument from sign

  • Argument from induction

  • Argument from cause

  • Argument from deduction

  • Argument from analogy

  • Argument from definition

  • Argument from statistics


Deductive reasoning ch 8
Deductive Reasoning (ch. 8)

  • Syllogism: basic form of deductive argument – major premise, minor premise, conclusion

  • Question the structure of the syllogism (does conclusion follow) and the truth of the premises


Some points about fallacies
Some points about fallacies

  • Infinite number of fallacies (Google fallacy!)

  • But fallacies are best understood in context

  • Establish fallacies by questioning an argument’s warrants and making a judgment about appropriate proofs


Logical fallacies
Logical Fallacies

  • Begging the question (restating the claim)

  • Red herring (irrelevant support)

  • Non sequitur (conclusion does not follow)

  • Straw man (distortion of opposing argument)

  • Stacked evidence (one-sided)

  • Either-or (false dichotomy)

  • Post hoc (faulty cause)

  • Hasty generalization


Fallacies of ethos pathos
Fallacies of Ethos & Pathos

  • Ad hominem

  • Guilt by association

  • Using authority instead of evidence

  • Bandwagon appeal

  • Slippery slope

  • Creating false needs


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